Memory Enhancers

  • Eleftherios Halevas
  • Georgios K. Katsipis
  • Anastasia A. PantazakiEmail author


Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) constitute a family of naturally-occurring microbial polymers possessing excellent physicochemical properties, non-toxic behavior, biocompatibility and biodegradability which render them distinctive candidates for industrial applications especially in medicinal and pharmaceutical areas. In this review, we deepened in various cellular processes to collect and record information highlighting the biotechnological applications of PHA monomers or derivatives as memory amplifiers. Neurological conditions under the umbrella term of “dementia” are concerning millions of people worldwide, and their prevalence rises exponentially. These diseases are generally defined by gradual loss of cognitive and physical abilities, due to severe dysfunction of important central nervous system (CNS) areas. Neuronal and synaptic degeneration, though not specified in detail, are most probably multi-etiological events, caused by abnormal protein aggregation, neuro-inflammation, oxidative stress, and dys-regulated extracellular or intracellular signaling and energy supply. Therefore, multifunctional polymeric formulations without side effects, such as PHAs (polymers of hydroxy-organic acids), offer numerous applications in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. PHA monomers or derivatives (e.g. 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate methyl ester, 3-hydroxybutyl-3-hydroxybutyrate) are now proven to act as artificial ketogenic compounds and memory enhancers administered in ketogenic diets. Ketogenic diet (KD) is a well-known alternative for the treatment of neurological conditions, as the produced ketones affect protein modifications, attenuate oxidative and inflammatory stress and modulate signaling pathways contributing to neurogenesis. Collectively, PHAs can ameliorate brain and neuronal activity, improve memory recall and even alleviate important pathological features of neurodegenerative problems, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) – related amyloid plaques.


Biopolymers Polyhydroxyalkanoates Memory enhancers 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eleftherios Halevas
    • 1
  • Georgios K. Katsipis
    • 1
  • Anastasia A. Pantazaki
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of ChemistryAristotle UniversityThessalonikiGreece

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