Changes in the Industrial Organization: Rise of Spin-Outs

  • Hiroshi Shimizu
Part of the Advances in Japanese Business and Economics book series (AJBE, volume 21)


As we have seen, laser diode R&D emerged primarily for optical communication applications. Due to technological developments in optical fibers, the wavelength resulting in the least transmission loss changed from short wavelengths of the 800-nm range to longer wavelength of 1300-nm and 1550-nm ranges. Therefore, more focus was given to R&D to develop laser diodes that would make high-speed, high-capacity optical communication possible at those longer wavelengths. To that end, scientists and engineers at telecommunications R&D facilities developed longer-wavelength laser diodes. Simultaneously, however, scientists and engineers began to develop shorter-wavelength laser diodes for optical information recording and processing, as more information could be processed with shorter-wavelength laser diodes.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroshi Shimizu
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of CommerceWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan

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