Advertisement

Advances in Diagnostic Techniques for Therapeutic Intervention

  • Geetesh Verma
  • Radhika Kesharwani
  • Pabbala Veeresh
  • Harpreet Kaur
  • Deepaneeta Sarmah
  • Vignesh Kotian
  • Leela Mounica
  • Anupom Borah
  • Kiran Kalia
  • Pallab BhattacharyaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The ability to get amazing real images from inside the human body has been made possible through the advent of medical imaging techniques. A lifesaving diagnostic tool began with the accidental discovery of X-rays. The last quarter of the nineteenth century saw an explosion of technological advancement in medical imaging from ultrasound to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which can peek inside the human body to a greater extent with improved image quality and shorter examination time at a reasonable cost. The aim of this chapter is to provide a concise information regarding the major imaging modalities available, their applications, benefits, and risks. Towards the end a comparison of all modalities are summarized in a table which will help to provide a better understanding of these medical imaging techniques to encourage further interest in the use and development of these techniques to benefit all human beings.

Keywords

X-ray Piezoelectric effect Positron emission tomography (PET) Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) Ultrasound Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 

References

  1. Assmus A (1995) Early history of X rays. Beam Line 25(2):10–24Google Scholar
  2. Basu S et al (2014) The basic principles of FDG-PET/CT imaging. PET Clinics 9(4):355–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berger D (1999) A brief history of medical diagnosis and the birth of the clinical laboratory. Part 1—Ancient times through the 19th century. MLO Med Lab Obs 31(7):28–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Carovac A, Smajlovic F, Junuzovic D (2011) Application of ultrasound in medicine. Acta Informatica Medica 19(3):168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen Q et al (2018) All-inorganic perovskite nanocrystal scintillators. Nature 561(7721):88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chin B et al (2003) 111In oxine labelled mesenchymal stem cell SPECT after intravenous administration in myocardial infarction. Nucl Med Commun 24(11):1149–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Claesson T (2001) A medical imaging demonstrator of computed tomography and bone mineral densitometry. Universitetsservice US AB, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  8. Constantinesco A et al (2005) Assessment of left ventricular perfusion, volumes, and motion in mice using pinhole gated SPECT. J Nucl Med 46(6):1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Council NR (1996) Mathematics and physics of emerging biomedical imaging. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. Dougherty G (2009) Digital image processing for medical applications. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hawkes R et al (1980) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tomography of the brain: a preliminary clinical assessment with demonstration of pathology. J Comput Assist Tomogr 4(5):577–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hsieh J (2009) Computed tomography: principles, design, artifacts, and recent advances. SPIE, BellinghamGoogle Scholar
  13. Iniewski K (2009) Medical imaging: principles, detectors, and electronics. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jauhiainen, J., The physical principles of medical imaging. 2009Google Scholar
  15. Jiang M et al (2001) Blind deblurring of spiral CT images. In: Signals, systems and computers, 2001. Conference record of the thirty-fifth Asilomar conference on. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  16. Kalender WA (1994) Technical foundations of spiral CT. In: Seminars in ultrasound, CT and MRI. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Kapoor V, McCook BM, Torok FS (2004) An introduction to PET-CT imaging. Radiographics 24(2):523–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kasban H, El-Bendary MAM, Salama DH (2015) A comparative study of medical imaging techniques. Int J Inform Sci Intell Syst 4(2):37–58Google Scholar
  19. Keall PJ et al (2005) Four-dimensional radiotherapy planning for DMLC-based respiratory motion tracking. Med Phys 32(4):942–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khalil MM et al (2011) Molecular SPECT imaging: an overview. Int J Mol Imaging 2011:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Koivula, L., Magnetic resonance imaging-based radiation therapy treatment planning. 2016Google Scholar
  22. Krohn KA, Link JM, Mason RP (2008) Molecular imaging of hypoxia. J Nucl Med 49(Suppl 2):129S–148SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. lalitesh (2012) Comparison between different imaging modalities-physics-report, projects for physics. Allahabad UniversityGoogle Scholar
  24. Lameka K, Farwell MD, Ichise M (2016) Positron emission tomography. Handb Clin Neurol, Elsevier:209–227Google Scholar
  25. Lorberboym M et al (2004) 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging of dopamine transporters in patients with cerebrovascular disease and clinical diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism. J Nucl Med 45(10):1688–1693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Magnetic resonance – basic principles. 2018Google Scholar
  27. McRobbie DW et al (2017) MRI from picture to proton. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nordqvist, C., CT scan or CAT scan: How does it work? 2018Google Scholar
  29. Patching SG (2015) Roles of facilitative glucose transporter GLUT1 in [18F] FDG positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of human diseases. J Diagn Imaging 2(1):30–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sacerdoti FM, Giordano A, Cavaliere C (2016) Advanced imaging techniques in clinical pathology. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sansare K, Khanna V, Karjodkar F (2011) Early victims of X-rays: a tribute and current perception. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 40(2):123–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sharma S, Ebadi M (2008) SPECT neuroimaging in translational research of CNS disorders. Neurochem Int 52(3):352–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Srinu, D. (2015 March 5). MRI introduction,components.Google Scholar
  34. Tanya Lewis, S.W., What is an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)? 2017Google Scholar
  35. Thedens, D.R., Basic principles of MRI. 2009Google Scholar
  36. Tsui BM, Kraitchman DL (2009) Recent advances in small-animal cardiovascular imaging. Journal of nuclear medicine: official publication. Soc Nucl Med 50(5):667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vanderheyden J (2009) The use of imaging in preclinical drug development. QJ Nucl Med Mol Imaging 53(4):374Google Scholar
  38. What’s the difference between an X-ray, CT scan and MRI? 2015Google Scholar
  39. Wilhjelm JE, et al (2013). Medical diagnostic ultrasound physical principles and imaging. By Andersen Biomedical Engineering, DTU Elektro Technical University of Denmark, Ver, 3(2)Google Scholar
  40. Wolbarst AB (1999) Looking within: how X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, and other medical images are created, and how they help physicians save lives. University of California PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geetesh Verma
    • 1
  • Radhika Kesharwani
    • 1
  • Pabbala Veeresh
    • 1
  • Harpreet Kaur
    • 1
  • Deepaneeta Sarmah
    • 1
  • Vignesh Kotian
    • 1
  • Leela Mounica
    • 1
  • Anupom Borah
    • 2
  • Kiran Kalia
    • 1
  • Pallab Bhattacharya
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyNational Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research-Ahmedabad (NIPER-A)GandhinagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Life Science and BioinformaticsAssam UniversitySilcharIndia

Personalised recommendations