Advertisement

Recent Advances on Polymer Nanocomposite-Based Radiation Shielding Materials for Medical Science

  • Abhijit Nath
  • Aunggat Shah
  • Sanjeev Bhandari
  • Manashjit Gogoi
  • Mrityunjoy Mahato
Chapter

Abstract

Nowadays, radiation is an integral part of our lives and economy by means of natural and human activity such as UV radiation (forensic analysis, medical imaging) (www.sciencing.com), microwave radiation (mobile phone, radar) (www.ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu), X-ray (radiology, security scan, material analysis) (www.labmate-online.com), and alpha, beta, gamma radiations (nuclear medicine, radiotherapy) (www.bbc.co.uk). The unwanted exposure to these radiations can lead to health disorder (cancer, birth defect) and other kinds of accidents. Therefore, protection of our health and environment from the radiation is necessary, and development of radiation protection nanocomposite is now an emergent field of research. Usually, a high-density material lead is used to protect in general from any kind of radiation and in particular from nuclear radiation. However, due to high atomic weight and high toxicity of lead, it has limited applications, and researchers are encouraged to look for a lightweight, nontoxic, low-cost polymer nanocomposite material as an alternative for lead. In this chapter, the following points will be summarized such as radiation used in medical field, unwanted exposure of environmental radiation, existing radiation shielding materials, and recent advancement on polymer-based lightweight cum high-efficient composite shielding materials.

Notes

Acknowledgement

Authors acknowledge DST-SERB, Government of India, for financial support through two SERB projects (No. EMR/2016/002634 and EMR/2016/ 004219) sanctioned to Dr. Mrityunjoy Mahato. Authors also would like to thank Department of BSSS, NEHU, Shillong, for providing laboratory working facility. AN and AS would like to acknowledge Non-NET NEHU PhD fellowship and SB for Non-NET SERB project fellowship to carry out research.

References

  1. Abidi N, Hequet E, Tarimala S, Dai LL (2007) Cotton fabric surface modification for improved UV radiation protection using sol–gel process. J Appl Polym Sci 104:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexandre M, Dubois P (2000) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials. Mater Sci Eng 28(1–2):1–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Saleh MH, Sundararaj U (2009a) EMI shielding mechanisms of CNT/polymer composites. Carbon 47:1738–1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Saleh MH, Sundararaj U (2009b) Electromagnetic interference shielding mechanisms of CNT/polymer composites. Carbon 47:1738–1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aycik GA, Belgin EE (2018) Effect of polymer matrix type on EM radiation shielding performances of PbO reinforced/polyethylene, isophytalic polyester and bisphenol A vinyl ester based composites. Int J Chem Chem Eng Syst 3:1–4Google Scholar
  6. Badawy SM (2015) Magnetite nanocomposite films for radiation shielding. Plastics Research Online, pp. 1–2Google Scholar
  7. Bhattacharya SN, Kamal MR, Gupta RK (2008) Polymeric nanocomposites: theory and practice. s.l. Hanser Gardner Publications, MunichGoogle Scholar
  8. Camlibel NO, Arik B, Avinc O, Yavas A (2018) Antibacterial, UV protection, flame retardancy and coloration properties of cotton fabrics coated with polyacrylate polymer containing various iron ores. J Text Inst 109:1–10Google Scholar
  9. Cao M-S, Wang X-X, Caoa W-Q, Yuan J (2015a) Ultrathin graphene: electrical properties and highly efficient EMI shielding. J Mater Chem C 26:1–35Google Scholar
  10. Cao M-S, Wang X-X, Caoab W-Q, Yuan J (2015b) Ultrathin graphene: electrical properties and highly efficient EMI shielding. J Mater Chem C 3:6589–6599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen Z, Xu C, Ma C, Ren W, Cheng H-M (2013) Lightweight and flexible graphene foam composites for high-performance EMI shielding. Adv Mater 25:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chena K, Guoa B, Luo J (2017) Quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/organic montmorillonite nanocomposite as a novel cosmetic ingredient against skin aging. Carbohydr Polym 173:100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cierniak R (2011) X-Ray Computed Tomography in Biomedical Engineering. s.l. Springer Verlag London Limited, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Colaneri NF, Shacklette LW (1992) EM1 shielding measurements of conductive polymer Blends. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 41(2):291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gupta YY, Mool C (2005) Novel CNT-polystyrene foam composites for EMI shielding. Nano Lett 5(21):2131–2134PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Gupta TK, Singh BP, Dhakate SR, Singh VN (2013) Improved nanoindentation and microwave shielding properties of modified MWCNTreinforced PU composite. J Mater Chem A 1:9138–9149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harish V, Nagaiah N, Niranjana Prabhu T, Varughese KT (2009) Preparation and characterization of PbO filled unsaturated polyester based polymer composites for gamma radiation shielding applications. J Appl Polym Sci 112:1503–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hathcock JT, Stickle RL (1993) Principles and concepts of computed tomography. Diagn Imaging 23(2):399–415Google Scholar
  19. He J, Shao W, Zhang L, Deng C, Li C (2009) Crystallization behavior and UV-protection property of PET-ZnO nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization. J Appl Polym Sci 114:1303–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hogg P, Testanera G (2010) Principles and practice of PET/CT. s.l.: EANM and SIEMENS. Brochures, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  21. Hosseini H, Mahdavi H (2018) Nanocomposite based on epoxy and MWCNTs modified with NiFe2O4 nanoparticles as efficient microwave absorbing. Appl Organomet Chem 32:1–8Google Scholar
  22. Jeon I, Baek J (2010) Nanocomposites derived from polymers and inorganic nanoparticles. Materials 3:3654–3674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jia L-C, Yan D-X, Liu X, Ma R, Wu H-Y, Li Z-M (2018) Highly efficient and reliable transparent electromagnetic interference shielding film. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jordon J, Jacob KI, Tannenbaum R, Sharaf MA, Jasiuk I (2005) Experimental trends in polymer nanocomposites-a review. Mater Sci Eng A 393:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaloshkin SD, Tcherdyntsev VV, Gorshenkov MV, Gulbin VN, Kuznetsov SA (2012) Radiation-protective polymer-matrix nanostructured composites. J Alloys Compd 536:522–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaundal RS (2016) Comparative Study of Radiation Shielding Parameters for Bismuth Borate Glasses. Mater Res 19:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khan FM (2012) The physics of radiation therapy. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Kim J, Seo D, Lee BC, Seo YS, Miller WH (2014) Nano-W dispersed gamma radiation shielding materials. Adv Eng Mater 16:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Knoll GE (1999) Radiation detection and measurement. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Lippmann M, Cohen BS, Schlesinger R b (2003) Environmental health science. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Li Y, Pei X, Shen B, Zhai W, Zhang L, Zheng W (2015) Polyimide/graphene composite foam sheets with ultrahigh thermostability for EMI shielding. RSC Adv 5:24342–24351Google Scholar
  32. Liu Z, Bai G, Huang Y, Ma Y, Du F, Li F, Guo T, Chen Y (2007) Reflection and absorption contributions to the EMI shielding of SWCNT/polyurethane composites. Carbon 45:821–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mai Y-W, Yu Z-Z (2006) Polymer nanocomposites. s.l. CRC Press/Woodhead Publishing, Boca Raton/CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maillie TH, Devid H (2003) Radiation and health. Taylor and Francis, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Manna K, Srivastava SK (2017) Fe3O4 carbon polyaniline trilaminar core-shell composites as superior microwave absorber in shielding of electromagnetic pollution. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 7b02682:1–38Google Scholar
  36. McRobbie DW, Moore EA, Graves MJ, Prince MR (2006) MRI from picture to proton. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mittal V (2012) Characterization techniques for polymer nanocomposites. Wiley, WeinheimCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. More CV, Bhosale RR, Pawar PP (2017) Detection of new polymer materials as gamma-ray-shielding materials. Radiat Eff Defects Solids 172:469–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Naito Y, Suetake K (1971) Application of ferrite to electromagnetic wave absorber and its characteristics. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech MTS-19:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ohlan A, Singh K, Chandra A, Dhawan SK (2008) Microwave absorption properties of conducting polymer composite with barium ferrite nanoparticles in 12.4–18 GHz. Appl Phys Lett 93:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Paul DR, Robeson LM (2008) Polymer nanotechnology: nanocomposites. Polymer 49:3187–3204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reddy RJ (2010) Preparation, characterization and properties of injection molded graphene nanocomposites. Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita. Kansas, USA: s.n. Master’s ThesisGoogle Scholar
  43. Saha GB (2010) Basics of PET imaging. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sapurina I, Kazantseva NE, Ryvkina NG, Prokes J, Saha P, Stejskal J (2005) Electromagnetic radiation shielding by composites of conducting polymers and wood. J Appl Polym Sci 35:807–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh S, Kumar A, Singh D, Singh Thind K, Mudahar GS (2008) Barium–borate–flyash glasses: As radiation shielding materials. Nucl Inst Methods Phys Res B 266:140–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Singh AP, Garg P, Alam F, Singh K, Mathur RB, Tandon RP, Chandra A, Dhawan SK (2012) Phenolic resin-based composite sheets filled with mixtures of reduced graphene oxide, c-Fe2O3 and carbon fibers for excellent electromagnetic interference shielding in the X-band. Carbon 50:3868–3875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sirohi S, Singh R, Jain N, Pani B, Dutt K, Nain R (2017) Synthesis and characterization of multifunctional ZnO/polyester green composite films. J Polym Res 24(193):1–10Google Scholar
  48. Szabo TL (2004) Diagnostic ultrasound imaging: inside out. Elsevier Academic Press, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  49. Tanahashi M (2010) Development of fabrication methods of filler/polymer nanocomposites: with focus on simple melt-compounding based approach without surface modification of nanofillers. Materials 3(3):1593–1619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wu F, Xu Z, Wang YWM (2014) Electromagnetic interference shielding properties of solid-state polymerization conducting polymer. RSC Adv 4:38797–38803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yang F, Ou Y, Zhongzhen YU (1998) Polyamide 6/silica nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization. J Appl Polym Sci 69:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yim Y-J, Rhee KY, Park S-J (2016) EMI shielding effectiveness of nickel-plated MWCNTs/HDPE composites. Composites Part B 98:120–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zali NM, Yazid H, Ahmad MHARM (2018) Neutron shielding behavior of thermoplastic natural rubber/B4C composites. IOP Conf Ser: Mater Sci Eng 298:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhijit Nath
    • 1
  • Aunggat Shah
    • 1
  • Sanjeev Bhandari
    • 1
  • Manashjit Gogoi
    • 2
  • Mrityunjoy Mahato
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics Division, Department of Basic Sciences and Social Sciences, School of TechnologyNorth-Eastern Hill UniversityShillongIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringNorth-Eastern Hill UniversityShillongIndia

Personalised recommendations