Biopolymeric Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Application

  • Nalini Ranganathan
  • A. Mugeshwaran
  • R. Joseph Bensingh
  • M. Abdul Kader
  • Sanjay K. Nayak


The scaffold is a three-dimensional (3D) substrate that works as a pattern for revival of the tissue. The tissue-engineered products comprise heart valves, cartilages, bones, muscle, nerves, liver, bladder, etc. The scaffold provides the necessary provision for the cells to attach, multiply, and sustain their distinguished functions. In recent years, polymeric scaffolds play a significant role in the tissue engineering application. A wide range of natural and synthetic biopolymers are being used for the fabrication of the scaffolds, which includes proteins, chitosan, polysaccharides, poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), etc. In addition bioactive glass and ceramic particles are reinforced with biopolymers and are used in the form of biocomposites for fabricating scaffolds structures. The reinforced biopolymers are extensively used in the development of scaffolds, due to incredible properties such as mechanical strength, regulated pore size, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and renewability. The fabricating materials are opted based on the functionality of the scaffolds, i.e., either synthetic or biologic, in other way degradable or nondegradable. The scaffolds are also distinguished based on the specific period of performance; commonly they are classified as short-term and long-term scaffolds. They are either injectable or implantable; usually the short-term scaffolds are injected and are biodegradable, whereas the long-term scaffolds are implanted and may be degradable or nondegradable. Various fabrication techniques were being adapted by the researchers to develop the scaffolds, which includes solvent casting, particulate leaching, phase separation, electrospinning, gas foaming, freeze-drying, and rapid prototyping. The selection of the materials and manufacturing methodologies are critically important for tissue engineering in designing the artificially made extracellular matrices (scaffolds), which can provide the support for three-dimensional tissue formation. Furthermore, various post-process surface modification methods are performed on the scaffolds to improve their functional performance.


Biopolymer Biocomposite Tissue engineering Biodegradation Biocompatibility 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nalini Ranganathan
    • 1
  • A. Mugeshwaran
    • 1
  • R. Joseph Bensingh
    • 1
  • M. Abdul Kader
    • 1
  • Sanjay K. Nayak
    • 2
  1. 1.Advanced Research School for Technology and Product Simulation (SARP)TVK Industrial EstateChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology (CIPET)TVK Industrial EstateChennaiIndia

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