Advertisement

Older Adults as Co-researchers for Built Environments: Virtual Reality as a Means of Engagement

  • Stephanie Liddicoat
  • Clare Newton
Chapter

Abstract

Participatory design is well established within technology design but less established within the field of architectural design. Based on previous research by the authors, this paper develops a methodological approach based on emerging technologies using residential aged care as the setting. The methodology incorporates virtual reality technologies and other visual elicitation strategies in order to involve current and potential users and families as co-designers/researchers. The authors have incorporated photo-elicitation and virtual reality techniques within research to involve participants in design conversations and as co-designers and evaluators of space. Previous research by Liddicoat developed guidelines for the design of counselling facilities based on co-research strategies with both client and consultant participants while Newton has used photo-elicitation and mapping as strategies of post-occupancy evaluation. Architectural design research processes which are inclusive of older adults as co-researchers is timely given the transformations that are occurring in the aged care sector, the current lack of involvement of older adults in built environment design and the lack of empirical evidence on what constitutes best design practice for residential aged care settings.

Keywords

Participatory research methodology Evidence-based design Residential aged care design Virtual reality Photo-elicitation Architecture Built environment 

References

  1. Agmon, M., Perry, C., Phelan, E., Demiris, G., & Nguyen, H. (2001). A pilot study of Wii fit exergames to improve balance in older adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 34(4), 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anuar, M. I. N. M., & Saruwono, M. (2012). Barriers of users; involvement in the design process of public parks as perceived by landscape architects. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 35, 253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arthuris, G. (2014). Vertical restructuring: High-rise tower rehabilitation. Nantes, France. Retrieved from http://www.devoldstockholm.com/holcim/content/2-entries/21-vertical-restructuring/vertical_restructuring_small.pdf.
  4. Austin, M. J., Dal Santo, T. S., & Lee, C. (2012). Building organizational supports for research-minded practitioners. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 9, 174–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2015). Use of aged care facilities before death. Retrieved from Canberra.Google Scholar
  6. Banos, R. M., Etchemendy, E., Castilla, D., Garcia-Palacios, A., Quero, S., & Botella, C. (2012). Positive mood induction procedures for virtual environments designed for elderly people. Interacting with Computers, 24, 131–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barlow, J., Childerhouse, P., Gann, D., Hong-Minh, S., Naim, M., & Ozaki, R. (2003). Choice and delivery in housebuilding: Lessons from Japan for UK housebuilders. Building Research & Information, 31(2), 134–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker, F., Sweeny, B., & Parsons, K. (2008). Ambulatory facility design and patients’ perceptions of healthcare quality. HERD, 1(4), 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beyerle, A. (2013). Agonistic participation: A political and architectural opportunity. Journal of Arts and Communities, 5(2&3), 147–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bisson, E., Contant, B., Sveistrup, H., & Lajoie, Y. (2007). Functional balance and dual-task reaction times in older adults are improved by virtual reality and biofeedback training. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 10(1), 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bleakley, C. M., Charles, D., Porter-Armstrong, A., McNeill, M. D. J., McDonough, S. M., & McCormack, B. (2015). Gaming for health: A systematic review of the physical and cognitive effects of interactive computer games in older adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 34(3), 166–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brawley, E. C. (1997). Designing for Alzheimer’s disease: Strategies for creating better care environments. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Buffel, T. (Ed.). (2015). Researching age-friendly communities: Stories from older people as co-investigators. Manchester: The University of Manchester Library.Google Scholar
  14. Burgess, R. (1988). Conversations with a purpose: The ethnographic interview in educational research. Studies in Qualitative Methodology, 1(1), 137–155.Google Scholar
  15. Burton, E., & Sheehan, B. (2010). Care-home environments and well-being: Identifying the design features that most affect older residents. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 27(3), 237–256.Google Scholar
  16. Centre for Ageing Research and Development in Ireland. (2010). Global ageing 2010: An irreversible truth. Retrieved from Ireland.Google Scholar
  17. Charlton, J. (1998). Nothing about us without us. California: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalsgaard, P. (2012). Participatory design in large-scale public projects: Challenges and opportunities. Design Issues, 28(3), 34–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Department of Health. (2016). 2015–16 Report on the Operation of the Aged Care Act 1997. Retrieved from Canberra.Google Scholar
  20. Dietz, T. & Stern, P. C. (2008). Public participation in environmental assessment and decision making. National Academic Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dilani, A. (2008). Psychosocially supportive design: A salutogenic approach to the design of the physical environment. Design and Health Scientific Review, 1(2), 47–55.Google Scholar
  22. Dilani, A. (2015). The beneficial outcomes of salutogenic design. World Health Design, 8(1), 21.Google Scholar
  23. Dingli, A., & Cassar, S. (2014). An intelligent framework for website usability. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2014, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doelle, M., & Sinclair, J. A. (2006). Time for a new approach to public participation in EA: Promoting cooperation and consensus for sustainability. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 26, 185–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eggermont, S., Vandebosch, H., & Steyaert, S. (2006). Towards the desired future of the elderly and ICT: Policy recommendations based on a dialogue with senior citizens. Poiesis & Praxis, 4, 199–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Epstein, I., & Blumenfield, S. (Eds.). (2001). Clinical data-mining in practice-based research—Social work in hospital settings. New York: The Haworth Social Work Practice Press.Google Scholar
  27. Epstein, I., Fisher, M., Julkunen, I., Uggerhoj, L., Austin, M. J., & Sim, T. (2015). The New York statement on the evolving definition of practice research designed for continuing dialogue: A bulletin from the 3rd international conference on practice research (2014). Research on Social Work Practice, 25(6), 711–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heinrich, C. J. (2002). Outcomes-based performance management in the public sector: Implications for government accountability and effectiveness. Public Administration Review, 62(6), 712–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Henderson, A. S., Korten, A. E., Jacomb, P. A., MacKinnon, A. J., Jorm, A. F., Christensen, H., et al. (1997). The course of depression in the elderly: A longitudinal community-based study in Australia. Psychological Medicine, 27, 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hurst, F. (2000). Architectural participatory design methods. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin-Stout.Google Scholar
  31. Johnson, N. & Rider, N. (2016). Aged care follows high-rise trends in Adelaide. Architecture & Design. Retrieved from http://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/news/aged-care-follows-high-rise-trends-in-adelaide.
  32. Joye, Y., & van den Berg, A. E. (2012). Restorative environments. In L. Steg, A. E. van den Berg, & J. I. M. de Groot (Eds.), Environmental psychology: An introduction (pp. 57–66). New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  33. Julkunen, I. (2011). Knowledge-production processes in practice research—Outcomes and critical elements. Social Work & Society, 9(1), 60–75.Google Scholar
  34. Kim, J. H., Jang, S. H., Kim, C. S., Jung, J. H., & You, J. H. (2009). Use of virtual reality to enhance balance and ambulation in chronic stroke: A double-blind, randomized controlled study. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88(9), 693–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kindon, S., Pain, R., & Kesby, M. (2007). Participatory action research approaches and methods: Connecting people, participation and place. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Knowles, L. M., Stelzer, E.-M., Jovel, K. S., & O’Connor, M.-F. (2017). A pilot study of virtual support for grief: Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 650–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kuliga, S. F., Thrash, T., Dalton, R. C., & Holscher, C. (2015). Virtual reality as an empirical research tool—Exploring user experience in a real building and a corresponding virtual model. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 54, 363–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Landefeld, S., Palmer, R. M., Kresevic, D. M., Fortinsky, R. H., & Kowal, J. (1995). A randomized trial of care in a hospital medical unit especially designed to improve the functional outcomes of acutely ill older patients. The New England Journal of Medicine, 332, 1338–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liddicoat, S. (2017). Architecture and the design of therapeutic environments (Ph.D). University of Melbourne, Melbourne (in print).Google Scholar
  40. Lingard, B., Nixon, J., & Ranson, S. (Eds.). (2008). Transforming learning in schools and communities: The remaking of education for a cosmopolitan society. London, England: Continuum International.Google Scholar
  41. LNG Studios. (2016). The five main benefits of using VR for architecture and design today. Retrieved from http://www.lngstudios.com/blog/the-5-main-benefits-of-using-vr-for-architecture-and-design-today.
  42. Marmot, A. (2002). Architectural determinism. Does design change behaviour? The British Journal of General Practice, 52(476), 252–253.Google Scholar
  43. Marquardt, G., Bueter, K., & Motzek, T. (2014). Impact of the design of the built environment on people with dementia: An evidence-based review. Health Environments Research and Design Journal, 8(1), 127–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marsden, J. P., Calkins, M. P., & Briller, S. H. (2003). Educating LTC staff about therapeutic environments. Journal of Architectural Planning Research, 20(1), 68–74.Google Scholar
  45. Massey, D. (2005). For space. London, England: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  46. Messer, L. C., Maxson, P., & Miranda, M. L. (2012). The urban built environment and associations with women’s psychosocial health. Journal of Urban Health, 90(5), 857–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Newton, C. (2016). Learning spaces: Challenging what you see and what you hear. Paper presented at the Fifty years later: Revisiting the role of architectural science in design and practice, 50th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association, Adelaide.Google Scholar
  48. Noguchi, M. (2003). The effect of the quality-oriented production approach on the delivery of prefabricated homes in Japan. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 18(4), 353–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. O’Brien, D. (Ed.) (2014). Evidence based design (EBD) journal, Aged Care (Vol. 1). Melbourne, Australia: Architectural Research Consultancy.Google Scholar
  50. Optale, G., Urgesi, C., & Busato, V. (2010). Controlling memory impairment in elderly adult using virtual reality memory training: A randomized controlled pilot study. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 24(4), 348–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Osborne, S. (2002). Public management—A critical perspective. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Pallasmaa, J. (2005). The eyes of the skin: Architecture and the senses. Chichester: Wiley-Academy.Google Scholar
  53. Parker, C., Barnes, S., McKee, K., Morgan, K., Torrington, J., & Tregenza, P. (2004). Quality of life and building design in residential and nursing homes for older people. Ageing & Society, 24, 941–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peters, T. (2014). Socially inclusive design in Denmark: The maturing landscape. Architectural Design, 84(2), 46–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Politis, A. M., Vozzella, S., Mayer, L. S., Onyike, C. U., Baker, A. S., & Lyketsos, C. G. (2004). A randomized, controlled, clinical trial of activity therapy for apathy in patients with dementia residing in long-term care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(11), 1087–1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Preschl, B., Wagner, B., Forstmeier, S., & Maercker, A. (2011). E-Health interventions for depression, anxiety disorder, dementia, and other disorders in older adults: A review. Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation, 4(3), 371–385.Google Scholar
  57. Pressly, P. K., & Heesacker, M. (2001). The physical environment and counselling: A review of theory and research. Journal of Counselling and Development, 79(2), 148–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Restorick Roberts, A., De Shutter, B., Franks, K., & Elise Radina, M. (2018). Older adults’ experiences with audiovisual virtual reality: Perceived usefulness and other factors influencing technology acceptance. Clinical Gerontologist.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07317115.2018.1442380.
  59. Rider, N. (2017). Three ways virtual reality can improve the design process. Architecture & Design. Retrieved from http://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/features/comment/3-ways-virtual-reality-can-improve-the-design-proc.
  60. Riva, G., Mantovani, F., & Capideville, C. S. (2007). Affective interactions using virtual reality: The link between presence and emotions. Cyberpsychology and Behaviour, 10, 45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Riva, G., Waterworth, J., & Waterworth, E. (2004). The layers of presence: A bio-cultural approach to understanding presence in natural and mediated environments. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 7(4), 405–419.Google Scholar
  62. Robinson, H., MacDonald, B., Kerse, N., & Broadbent, E. (2013). The psychosocial effects of a companion robot: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Disorders Association, 14(9), 635–636.Google Scholar
  63. Rosenberg, D., Depp, C. A., Vahia, I. V., Reichstadt, J., Palmer, B. W., Kerr, J., et al. (2010). Exergames for subsyndromal depression in older adults: A pilot study of a novel intervention. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 221–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rovner, B., & Katz, I. (1993). Psychiatric disorders in the nursing home: A selective review of studies related to clinical care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8, 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Saldana, J. (2016). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  66. Sanoff, H. (2000). Community participation methods in design and planning. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  67. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action (Vol. 5126). New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  68. Schwarz, B., & Brent, R. (2001). The architectural metamorphosis of long-term care settings. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 18(3), 255–269.Google Scholar
  69. Shaunfield, S., Wittenberg-Lyles, E., Oliver, D. P., & Demiris, G. (2014). Virtual field trips for long-term care residents: A feasibility study. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 38(3), 237–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. SIGNAL Architects, (2006). Programme for the good hospice in Denmark. Denmark: Realdania.Google Scholar
  71. Simonsen, J., & Robertson, T. (Eds.). (2012). Routledge international handbook of participatory design. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Srinivasan, S., O’Falton, L. R., & Dearry, A. (2003). Creating health communities, healthy homes, healthy people: Initiating a research agenda on the built environment and public health. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1446–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stambol Architects. (2018). VR for architecture: From virtual design to real PR. Retrieved from https://www.stambol.com/2018/02/26/vr-for-architecture-from-virtual-design-to-real-pr/.
  74. Sternberg, E. (2009). Healing spaces: The science of place and well-being. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  75. Thomson, P. (2009). Doing visual research with children and young people. London, England: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Uggerhoj, L. (2011). What is practice research in social work-definitions, barriers and possibilities. Social Work & Society, 9(1), 45–59.Google Scholar
  77. Ulrich, R. S. (2006). Essay evidence-based health-care architecture. Medicine and Creativity, 368(December), 538–539.Google Scholar
  78. Ulrich, R. S., Zimring, C., Zhu, X., DuBose, J., Seo, H.-B., Choi, Y.-S., et al. (2008). A review of the research literature on evidence-based healthcare design. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 1(3), 61–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wang, E. & Caldwell, B. (2002). An empirical study of usability testing: Heuristic evaluation vs user testing. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 46, No. 8, pp. 774–778).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Waycott, J., Morgans, A., Pedell, S., Ozanne, E., Vetere, F., Kulik, L., et al. (2015). Ethics in evaluating a sociotechnical intervention with socially isolated older adults. Qualitative Health Research, 25(11), 1518–1528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Waycott, J., Wadley, G., Baker, S., Ferdous, H. S., Hoang, T., Gerling, K., et al. (2018). Manipulating reality? Designing and deploying virtual reality in sensitive settings. DIS 2018 – Companion Publication of the 2018 Designing Interactive Systems Conference.  https://doi.org/10.1145/3197391.3197401.
  82. World Health Organisation. (2007). Global age-friendly cities: A guide. Retrieved from Switzerland: https://www.who.int/ageing/publications/Global_age_friendly_cities_Guide_English.pdf.
  83. Yao, B. W. (2006). Technology and public participation in environmental decisions (Master of Urban Studies and Planning). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  84. Yiao, Y. Y., Yang, Y. R., Wu, Y. R., & Wang, R. Y. (2015). Virtual reality-based Wii fit training in improving muscle strength, sensory integration ability, and walking abilities in patients with Parkinson’s disease: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Gerontology, 9(4), 190–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Architecture, Building and PlanningThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations