The Politics of Spirituality: Dissident Spiritual Practice of Poykayil Appachan and the Shared Legacy of Kerala Renaissance

  • Ajay S. Sekher


The paper explores the unique spiritual and political struggles and journeys of Poykayil Kumara Guru or Poykayil Appachan, a dalit reformer of the early twentieth century Kerala. He was using the benefits and openings of modernity in the colonial context and created his own sect called Pratyaksha Raksha Daiva Sabha or PRDS in the early twentieth century for the mobility of the dalits in Kerala. His unique songs and spirituals proclaim the liberation of the excluded and are greater attempts to textualize the memories of the marginalized. He is contextualized in the greater terrain of Kerala renaissance.


Appachan Poyka PRDS Songs and sprituals Kerala renaissance Caste and Varna 

Key Authors

Poykayil Appachan Narayana Guru Chattambi Swamikal Ayya Vaikundha Sahodaran 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajay S. Sekher
    • 1
  1. 1.Sree Sankaracharya University of SanskritKalady, ErnakulamIndia

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