Advertisement

Snakes and Ladders

  • Carmel Diezmann
  • Susan Grieshaber
Chapter

Abstract

Specific theorists and concepts were introduced and discussed in Chap.  5, and some of these ideas are drawn on in the analysis undertaken in this chapter. Considering catalysts (ladders) and inhibitors (snakes) gives insight into what it takes to make it to the professoriate and some of the factors involved. This chapter identifies four types of catalysts for and four types of inhibitors to career progression for women in the academy. These catalysts and inhibitors include Individual Influences, Academic Work Influences, Academic Environment Influences, and Social Influences, and each is discussed in this chapter. The culture of the Boys’ Club was identified as one of the four inhibitors in the category Academic Environment Influences. It is mentioned briefly in this chapter but is discussed more fully in Chap.  7.

References

  1. Australian Research Council. (2015). ARC research opportunity and performance evidence (ROPE) statement. Retrieved from http://www.arc.gov.au/arc-research-opportunity-and-performance-evidence-rope-statement.
  2. Bagilhole, B., & White, K. (2003). Created in their image: An analysis of male cultural hegemony in higher education in Australian and the United Kingdom. In B. Groombridge & V. Mackie (Eds.), Re-searching research agendas: Women, research and publication in higher education: Proceedings of the Australian Technology Network – Women’s Executive Development (ATN-WEXDEV) 2003 research conference. Perth, Australia: Learning Support Network, Curtin University of Technology.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, M. (2010). Career confidence and gendered expectations of academic promotion. Journal of Sociology, 46(3), 317–334.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, M. (2012). Fertility, childrearing & the academic gender gap. Women’s Health and Urban Life, 11(2), 9–25.Google Scholar
  5. Barrett, L., & Barrett, P. (2011). Women and academic workloads: Career slow lane or Cul-de-sac? Higher Education, 61(2), 141–155.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, C. (2011). Beyond the leaky pipeline: Consolidating understanding and incorporating new research about women’s science careers in the UK. Brussels Economic Review, 54(2/3), 149–176.Google Scholar
  7. Blackaby, D., Booth, A. L., & Frank, J. (2005). Outside offers and the gender pay gap: Empirical evidence from the UK academic labour market. The Economic Journal, 115(501), F81–F107.Google Scholar
  8. Boreham, P., Western, M., Baxter, J., Dever, M., & Laffan, W. (2008). Gender differences in early post-PhD employment in Australian universities: The influence of the PhD experience on women’s academic careers (Final Report). Brisbane, Australia: University of Queensland Social Research Centre. Retrieved from https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/Gender-differences-in-early-post-PhD-employment.pdf.
  9. Bozeman, B., & Gaughan, M. (2011). Job satisfaction among university faculty: Individual, work, and institutional determinants. The Journal of Higher Education, 82(2), 154–186.  https://doi.org/10.1353/jhe.2011.0011.Google Scholar
  10. Bradley, A. (2008). Derrida’s ‘of grammatology’: An Edinburgh philosophical guide. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bronstein, P. (2001). Older women in academia: Contemporary history and issues. Journal of Women’s History, 12(4), 184–201.Google Scholar
  12. Browne, J. (2014). The critical mass marker approach: Female quotas and social justice. Political Studies, 62(4), 862–877.Google Scholar
  13. Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Butler, J. (2004). Undoing gender. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Camussi, E., & Leccardi, C. (2005). Stereotypes of working women: The power of expectations. Social Science Information, 44(1), 113–140.Google Scholar
  16. Chesterman, C. (2005). Getting there and staying there: How to build and maintain a critical mass of women in senior positions in the current context. Paper presented at the Equal Opportunity Practitioners in Higher Education Australasia (EOPHEA) Conference, Brisbane, Australia.Google Scholar
  17. Dany, F., Louvel, S., & Valette, A. (2011). Academic careers: The limits of the “boundaryless approach” and the power of promotion scripts. Human Relations, 64(7), 971–996.Google Scholar
  18. Derrida, J. (1976). Of grammatology (G. Spivak, Trans.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Derrida, J. (1997). Deconstruction in a nutshell: A conversation with Jacques Derrida. Edited with a commentary by John D. Caputo. New York, NY: Fordham University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dickie, C. (2011). Winning the PhD Game: Evocative playing of snakes and ladders. The Qualitative Report, 16(5), 1230–1244.. Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1296&context=tqr.Google Scholar
  21. Diezmann, C. M., & Grieshaber, S. J. (2013). Australian women in the academy: Challenges and aspirations. In W. Patton (Ed.), Conceptualising women’s working lives (pp. 157–173). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  22. Doherty, L., & Manfredi, S. (2005). Improving women’s representation in senior positions in the higher education sector, stage 1 findings. Oxford, UK: Centre for Diversity Policy Research, Oxford Brookes University.Google Scholar
  23. Duguid, M. (2011). Female tokens in high-prestige work groups: Catalysts or inhibitors of group diversification? Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 116(1), 104–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.05.009.Google Scholar
  24. Eagly, A. H., & Carli, L. (2007). Women and the labyrinth of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 85(9), 62–71.Google Scholar
  25. European Commission. (2016). Meta-analysis of gender and science research: Synthesis report. Brussels, Belgium: Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/research/swafs/pdf/pub_gender_equality/meta-analysis-of-gender-and-science-research-synthesis-report.pdf.Google Scholar
  26. Foster, N. (2001). A case study of women academics’ views on equal opportunities, career prospects and work and family conflicts in a UK university. Career Development International, 6(1), 28–38.Google Scholar
  27. Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972–1977 (C. Gordon, L. Marshall, J. Mepham, & K. Soper, Trans.). Brighton, UK: Harvester.Google Scholar
  28. Gardiner, M., Tiggemann, M., Kearns, H., & Marshall, K. (2007). Show me the money! An empirical analysis of mentoring outcomes for women in academia. Higher Education Research & Development, 26(4), 425–442.Google Scholar
  29. Gardner, S. K. (2012). “I couldn’t wait to leave the toxic environment”: A mixed methods study of women faculty satisfaction and departure from one research institution. NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education, 5(1), 71–95.Google Scholar
  30. Gheus, A. (2015). Three cheers for the token woman! Journal of Applied Philosophy, 32(2), 163–176.  https://doi.org/10.1111/japp.12088.Google Scholar
  31. Gladwin, M., McDonald, G., & McKay, J. (2014). Conversations with professors: An exploration of career success. Higher Education Review, 46(3), 26–51.Google Scholar
  32. Hensel, N. (1991). Realizing gender equality in higher education: The need to integrate work/family issues (ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2). Washington, DC: School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University.Google Scholar
  33. Heward, C. (1994). Academic snakes and merit ladders: Reconceptualising the ‘glass ceiling’. Gender and Education, 6(3), 249–262.Google Scholar
  34. Ibarra, H., Carter, N. M., & Silva, C. (2010). Why men still get more promotions than women. Harvard Business Review, 88(9), 80–85.Google Scholar
  35. Jackson, A. Y., & Mazzei, L. A. (2012). Thinking with theory in qualitative research: Viewing data across multiple perspectives. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Kimura, D. (1997). Affirmative action policies are demeaning to women in academia. Canadian Psychology, 38(4), 238–243.Google Scholar
  37. Ledford, K. (2012). Navigating the world of academia as a mother and contingent faculty member: A narrative inquiry. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from http://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_dissertations/1029/.
  38. Maranto, C. L., & Griffin, A. E. C. (2011). The antecedents of a ‘chilly climate’ for women faculty in higher education. Human Relations, 64(2), 139–159.Google Scholar
  39. Merton, R. K. (1973). The Matthew effect in science. In N. W. Storer (Ed.), The sociology of science (pp. 439–459). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  40. Morley, L. (2013). The rules of the game: Women and the leaderist turn in higher education. Gender and Education, 25(1), 116–131.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540253.2012.740888.Google Scholar
  41. Noon, M. (2010). The shackled runner: Time to rethink positive discrimination? Work, Employment & Society, 24(4), 728–739.Google Scholar
  42. O’Connor, O. (2000). Resistance in academia. Paper presented to NAWE International Conference on Women in Higher Education, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  43. Penney, S., Young, G., Badenhorst, C., Goodnough, K., Hesson, J., Joy, R., … Pelech, S. (2015). Faculty writing groups: A support for women balancing family and career on the academic tightrope. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 45(4), 457–459.Google Scholar
  44. Pyke, J. (2013). Women, choice and promotion or why women are still a minority in the professoriate. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 35(4), 444–454.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2013.812179.Google Scholar
  45. Rossiter, M. W. (1993). The Matthew Matilda effect in science. Social Studies of Science, 23(2), 325–341.  https://doi.org/10.1177/030631293023002004.Google Scholar
  46. Schmidt, E. K., & Faber, S. T. (2016). Benefits of peer mentoring to mentors, female mentees and higher education institution. Mentoring & Learning: Partnership in Learning, 24(2), 137–157.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2016.1170560.Google Scholar
  47. Seifert, T. A., & Umbach, P. D. (2008). The effects of faculty demographic characteristics and disciplinary context on dimensions of job satisfaction. Research in Higher Education, 49(4), 357–381.Google Scholar
  48. Sloane, P. J., & Ward, M. E. (2001). Cohort effects and job satisfaction of academics. Applied Economics Letters, 8(12), 787–791.Google Scholar
  49. Smith, J. W., & Calasanti, T. (2005). The influences of gender, race and ethnicity on workplace experiences of institutional and social isolation: An exploratory study of university faculty. Sociological Spectrum, 25(3), 307–334.Google Scholar
  50. Soliman, I. (1998). Many routes one destination: Profiles of successful academic women. Armidale, Australia: University of New England.Google Scholar
  51. Spivak, G. C. (1993). Outside in the teaching machine. New York, NY/London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Su, X., Johnson, J., & Bozeman, B. (2015). Gender diversity strategy in academic departments: Exploring organizational determinants. Higher Education, 69(5), 839–858.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-014-9808-z.Google Scholar
  53. Sussman, D., & Yssaad, L. (2005, February). The rising profile of women academics. Perspectives,6–19.Google Scholar
  54. Symonds, M. (2007). Quantity, quality and equality. New Scientist, 194(2611), 48–49.Google Scholar
  55. Tessens, L., White, K., & Web, C. (2011). Senior women in higher education institutions: Perceived development needs and support. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 33(6), 653–665.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2011.621191.Google Scholar
  56. Thanacoody, P., Bartram, T., Barker, M., & Jacobs, K. (2006). Career progression among female academics: A comparative study of Australia and Mauritius. Women in Management Review, 21(7), 536–553.Google Scholar
  57. Thomas, R., & Davies, A. (2002). Gender and new public management: Reconstituting academic subjectivities. Gender, Work and Organization, 9(4), 372–397.Google Scholar
  58. Thornton, M. (1990). The liberal promise: Anti-discrimination legislation in Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Thornton, M. (2013). The mirage of merit: Reconstituting the ‘ideal academic’. Australian Feminist Studies, 28(76), 127–143.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08164649.2013.789584.Google Scholar
  60. van Anders, S. (2004). Why the academic pipeline leaks: Fewer men than women perceive barriers to becoming professors. Sex Roles, 51(9–10), 511–521.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-004-5461-9.Google Scholar
  61. van den Brink, M., & Benschop, Y. (2012). Slaying the seven-headed dragon: The quest for gender change in academia. Gender, Work and Organization, 19(1), 71–92.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2011.00566.x.Google Scholar
  62. Ward, B. (2003). The female professor: A rare Australian species – The who and how. PhD thesis. Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.Google Scholar
  63. Ward, K., & Wolf-Wendel, L. E. (2004). Academic motherhood: Managing complex roles in research universities. Review of Higher Education, 27(2), 233–257.Google Scholar
  64. Ward, M. E., & Sloane, P. J. (2000). Non-pecuniary advantages versus pecuniary disadvantages: Job satisfaction among male and female academics in Scottish universities. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 47(3), 273–303.Google Scholar
  65. White, K. (2001). Women in the professoriate in Australia. International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 3(2), 64–76.Google Scholar
  66. Wilson, J., Marks, G., Noone, L., & Hamilton-Mackenzie, J. (2010). Retaining a foothold on the slippery paths of academia: University women, indirect discrimination, and the academic marketplace. Gender and Education, 22(5), 535–545.Google Scholar
  67. Winchester, H., Lorenzo, S., Browning, L., & Chesterman, C. (2006). Academic women’s promotions in Australian universities. Employee Relations, 28(6), 505–522.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmel Diezmann
    • 1
  • Susan Grieshaber
    • 2
  1. 1.Queensland University of TechnologyKelvin GroveAustralia
  2. 2.La Trobe UniversityBundooraAustralia

Personalised recommendations