Access and Benefit Sharing in Horticultural Genetic Resources
The biodiversity of the Earth, constituted of all the living beings and their environment, plays an important role in the subsistence of life. Due to the recent rapid advancements in science and technology and globalisation, use of biodiversity is at unprecedented levels. This has also brought forth many instances of exploitation and destruction of important biological resources. Recognition in the international community about the importance of the conservation of natural biodiversity, and its components and processes, which was considered as common heritage of mankind till 1992, led to the rise of many multi-lateral international agreements for legal facilitation of utilization of biodiversity for the global economy. This chapter deals with introducing the legal framework under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) of 1992, Nagoya Protocol, 2010, and the Indian Biological Diversity Act, 2002, and related rules/regulations for the utilisation of horticultural genetic resources (HGR), with focus on medicinal plants. This chapter also highlights the modes of application of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002, in India and the obligations of various stakeholders with respect to utilisation of bio-resources. Few case studies are also provided at the end of the chapter to put the CBD and the BD Act, 2002, in perspective and the challenges in implementation of the Act in an Indian context.
KeywordsBiological resources Convention on Biological Diversity Biological Diversity Act 2002 Access and Benefit Sharing
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