Traditional Knowledge in Horticulture

  • K. Souravi
  • P. E. Rajasekharan


Traditional knowledge is the experience gained over centuries collectively owned as a tradition. It is mainly of a practical nature, such as agriculture, fisheries, health, horticulture, forestry and environmental management in general. In the recent years, TK is growing and gaining its due appreciation. TK makes a significant contribution to sustainable development. Most of the indigenous communities are situated in areas where the vast majority of the world’s genetic resources are found and are cultivated and are being used in a sustainable way for thousands of years. They relied almost fully on their TK for farming decisions. These means of engagement with the natural environment are skills not well understood by most scientists but useful to the farmers in a country like India which is an agricultural economy wherein about 70% of the rural household still depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Hence, it is one of the rich countries which is a home to abundant agroecological diversity wherein the relation of TK is of at most significance. This chapter tries to analyse the interplay of TK and horticulture, its parlance to climate change, further emphasizing on its legal background and the challenges ahead.


Traditional knowledge Indigenous communities Climate change Horticulture CBD 


  1. Anuradha, R. V. (2001). Biopiracy and traditional knowledge. The Hindu, 20 May 2001.Google Scholar
  2. Balasubramanian, S. (2018). India: Traditional knowledge and patent issues: An overview of turmeric, basmati, neem cases. Last Updated 18 April 2017. Last seen on 12 Feb 2018.
  3. Blakeney, M. (2004). Regulating access to genetic resources. In S. K. Verma & R. Mitttal (Eds.), Intellectual property rights a global vision (p. 7). New Delhi: Indian Law Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Brahma, N., & Daimary, L. (2017, May). The Traditional agricultural tools and technology used by the bodos. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 22(5), Ver. 8.Google Scholar
  5. CBD. (2006, January). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5(1), 79–82. Last seen on 31 Jan 2018.
  6. Convention for the safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. (2003). UNESCO. Last seen on 12 Feb 2018.
  7. Das, P. K., & Nag, D. (2006, January). Traditional agricultural tools—A review. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5(1), 41–46.Google Scholar
  8. Fecteau, L. M. (2001). The Ayahuasca Patent Revocation: Raising questions about current U.S. Patent Policy at, visited on 21 Dec 2008.Google Scholar
  9. Gosai, K., Arunachalam, A., Dutta, B. K., & Prasanna Kumar, G. V. (2011, July). Indigenous knowledge of soil fertility management in the humid tropics of Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10(3), 508–511.Google Scholar
  10. IFAD. (2016). Last seen on 24 Jan 2019.
  11. Indigenous Technical Knowledge and resource utilization of Lisus in the South eastern part of Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh.Google Scholar
  12. Kannaiyan, S. (2007). Biological diversity and traditional knowledge. Paper circulated for discussion at the national consultation workshop on Agro biodiversity hotspots and access and benefit sharing held during July 19–20, 2007 at Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar.Google Scholar
  13. Karthikeyan, C., Veeraragavathatham, D., Karpagam, D., & Ayisha Firdouse, S. (2009). Traditional tools in agricultural practices. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 8(2), 212–217.Google Scholar
  14. Lal, C., & Verma, L. R. (2006, January). Use of certain bio-products for insect-pest control. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5(1), 51–56.Google Scholar
  15. Mao, A. A., & Hynniewta, M. T. (2011, July). Plants used as Agricultural seasons Indicator by Mao Naga tribe, Manipur, India. IJTK, 10(3), 508–511.Google Scholar
  16. Mashelkar, R. A. (2001). Intellectual property rights and the Third World. Current Science, 81(8), 955.Google Scholar
  17. Michael Finger, J., & Schuler, P. (2013). Poor people’s knowledge: Promoting intellectual property in developing countries (p. 145). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  18. Narayanasamy, P. (2006, January). Traditional knowledge of tribals in crop protection. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5(1), 64–70.Google Scholar
  19. Sanofi. (2011). Corporate social responsibility reporting.Google Scholar
  20. Sarkar, B., Sundaram, P. K., Dey, A., Kumar, U., Sarma, K., & Bhatt, B. P. (2015, January–February). Traditional agricultural tools used by tribal farmers in eastern India. Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(1), 215–219.Google Scholar
  21. Sarmah, R., Arunachalam, A., Adhikari, D., Majumder Singh, M., Ranjay, K., Srivastava, R. C., Community, Adi, & Mukherjee, T. K. (2010, April). Toko-Patta (Livistona jenkinsiana Griff): Adi community and conservation of culturally important endangered tree species in eastern Himalaya. IJTK, 9(2), 231–241.Google Scholar
  22. The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous people and traditional knowledge. (2007). Last seen on 12 Feb 2018.
  23. TKDL. (2018). Last seen on 31 Jan 2018.
  24. TRIPS agreement 1995. Last seen on 31 Jan 2018
  25. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification 1994. Last seen on 12 Feb 2018.
  26. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII). (2002). Last seen on 12 Feb 2018.
  27. Walid, A. (2012). The Bt brinjal case: The first legal action against Monsanto and its Indian collaborators for biopiracy. Biotechnology Law Report, Mary Ann Liebert, 31(2), 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. WIPO. Last seen on 11 Feb 2018.
  29. Zuma-Netshiukhwi, G., Stigter, K., & Walker, S. (2013). Use of traditional weather/climate knowledge by farmers in the south-western free state of South Africa: Agrometeorological learning by scientists. Atmosphere, 4, 383–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Souravi
    • 1
  • P. E. Rajasekharan
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant Genetic ResourcesICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations