Advertisement

Starch-Based DDSs with Stimulus Responsiveness

  • Jin ChenEmail author
  • Ling Chen
  • Fengwei Xie
  • Xiaoxi Li
Chapter

Abstract

Owing to the excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility of starch, numerous efforts have been undertaken to prepare stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems (DDSs) from starch and its derivatives during the past few decades. The biological stimuli at the different organ and cellular compartment-specific levels or pathological conditions including pH, enzyme, temperature, and redox potential have been exploited for the development of starch-based stimulus-responsive DDSs. These types of stimulus responsiveness of starch-based DDSs can be achieved by incorporating functional groups to starch, such as disulfide bonds to acquire redox sensitiveness, or by changing physicochemical properties, such as hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of starch derivatives to acquire temperature sensitiveness. Besides, magnetic-responsive starch-based DDSs have been developed by the incorporation of magnetic particles with starch film coatings or in starch matrix. The individual starch-based, stimulus-responsive DDSs have to some extent been reasonably well validated. Furthermore, two or more response elements have been combined to functionalize starch-based DDSs for smart drug release behavior. In this chapter, the role and application of starch and its derivatives in DDSs endowed with individual, dual, and multi-stimuli responsiveness will be discussed.

Keywords

Starch-based drug delivery system Stimulus responsiveness pH responsiveness Enzymatic responsiveness Temperature responsiveness Redox responsiveness Magnetic responsiveness Dual and multi-responsiveness 

References

  1. Abdel Ghaffar AM, Radwan RR, Ali HE (2016) Radiation synthesis of Poly(Starch/Acrylic acid) pH sensitive hydrogel for rutin controlled release. Int J Biol Macromol 92:957–964.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.07.079PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abhari N, Madadlou A, Dini A, Hosseini naveh O (2017) Textural and cargo release attributes of trisodium citrate cross-linked starch hydrogel. Food Chem 214:16–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.042CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Acosta C et al (2014) Polymer composites containing gated mesoporous materials for on-command controlled release. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:6453–6460.  https://doi.org/10.1021/am405939yCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad M, Ashokanshu B (2009) Isolation and physicochemical characterization of Bora rice starch from Assam as pharmaceutical excipients. J Pharm Res 2:1299–1303Google Scholar
  5. Ahmad MZ, Akhter S, Ahmad I, Singh A, Anwar M, Shamim M, Ahmad FJ (2012a) In vitro and in vivo evaluation of Assam Bora rice starch-based bioadhesive microsphere as a drug carrier for colon targeting. Expert Opin Drug Delivery 9:141–149.  https://doi.org/10.1517/17425247.2012.633507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad MZ, Akhter S, Anwar M, Ahmad FJ (2012b) Assam Bora Rice starch based biocompatible mucoadhesive microsphere for targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil in colorectal cancer. Mol Pharm 9:2986–2994.  https://doi.org/10.1021/mp300289yPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahmad MZ, Akhter S, Anwar M, Kumar A, Rahman M, Talasaz AH, Ahmad FJ (2013) Colorectal cancer targeted Irinotecan-Assam Bora rice starch based microspheres: a mechanistic, pharmacokinetic and biochemical investigation. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 39:1936–1943.  https://doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2012.719906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alexiou C et al (2001) Magnetic mitoxantrone nanoparticle detection by histology, X-ray and MRI after magnetic tumor targeting. J Magn Magn Mater 225:187–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-8853(00)01256-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen TM, Cullis PR (2004) Drug delivery systems: entering the mainstream. Science 303:1818–1822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Athira GK, Jyothi AN (2015) Cassava starch-poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites for the controlled delivery of curcumin in cancer prevention and treatment. Starch - Stärke 67:549–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bajpai SK, Saxena S (2004a) Dynamic release of riboflavin from a starch-based semi IPN via partial enzymatic degradation: part II. React Funct Polym 61:115–129.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2004.04.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bajpai SK, Saxena S (2004b) Enzymatically degradable and pH-sensitive hydrogels for colon-targeted oral drug delivery. I. Synthesis and characterization. J Appl Polym Sci 92:3630–3643.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.20283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bajpai SK, Saxena S (2006) Flow through diffusion cell method: a novel approach to study in vitro enzymatic degradation of a starch-based ternary semi-interpenetrating network for gastrointestinal drug delivery. J Appl Polym Sci 100:2975–2984.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.22897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bajpai SK, Saxena S, Dubey S (2006) The flow-through diffusion cell (FTDC) method: a novel approach to in vitro drug release studies. Polym Int 55:12–18.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.1954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baker JP, Blanch HW, Prausnitz JM (1994) Equilibrium swelling properties of weakly lonizable 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-based hydrogels. J Appl Polym Sci 52:783–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bakrudeen HB, Sudarvizhi C, Reddy BSR (2016) Starch nanocrystals based hydrogel: construction, characterizations and transdermal application. Mater Sci Eng C 68:880–889.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.07.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bardajee GR, Hooshyar Z (2013) A novel biocompatible magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/hydrogel based on poly (acrylic acid) grafted onto starch for controlled drug release. J Polym Res 20:298.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10965-013-0298-y
  18. Bernardos A et al (2010) Enzyme-responsive intracellular controlled release using nanometric silica mesoporous supports capped with “saccharides”. ACS Nano 4:6353–6368.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn101499dPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bie P, Chen L, Li X, Li L (2016) Characterization of concanavalin A-conjugated resistant starch acetate bioadhesive film for oral colon-targeting microcapsule delivery system. Ind Crops Prod 84:320–329.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.02.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Björses K, Faxälv L, Montan C, Wildt-Persson K, Fyhr P, Holst J, Lindahl TL (2011) vitro and in vivo evaluation of chemically modified degradable starch microspheres for topical haemostasis. Acta Biomater 7:2558–2565.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2011.03.003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bolourchian N, Hadidi N, Foroutan SM, Shafaghi B (2009) Development and optimization of a sublingual tablet formulation for physostigmine salicylate. Acta Pharmaceutica 59:301–312.  https://doi.org/10.2478/v10007-009-0028-5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Callens C, Remon JP (2000) Evaluation of starch-maltodextrin-Carbopol(®) 974 P mixtures for the nasal delivery of insulin in rabbits. J Control Release 66:215–220.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-3659(99)00271-0PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carbinatto FM, Ribeiro TS, Colnago LA, Evangelista RC, Cury BS (2016) Preparation and characterization of amylose inclusion complexes for drug delivery applications. J Pharm Sci 105:231–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carter R, Cooke TG, Hemingway D, McArdle CS, Angerson W (1992) The combination of degradable starch microspheres and angiotensin II in the manipulation of drug delivery in an animal model of colorectal metastasis. Br J Cancer 65:37–39PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen D, Song P, Jiang F, Meng X, Sui W, Shu C, Wan L-J (2013) pH-responsive mechanism of a deoxycholic acid and folate comodified chitosan micelle under cancerous environment. J Phys Chem B 117:1261–1268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chen M, Gao C, Lü S, Chen Y, Liu M (2016a) Dual redox-triggered shell-sheddable micelles self-assembled from mPEGylated starch conjugates for rapid drug release RSC. Advances 6:9164–9174Google Scholar
  27. Chen M, Gao C, Lü S, Chen Y, Liu M (2016b) Preparation of redox-sensitive, core-crosslinked micelles self-assembled from mPEGylated starch conjugates: remarkable extracellular stability and rapid intracellular drug release. RSC Adv 6:46159–46169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clara I, Natchimuthu N (2017) Hydrogels based on starch-g-poly(sodium-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonate-co-methacrylic acid) as controlled drug delivery systems. Starch - Stärke 69:1600177-n/a.  https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201600177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Codd JE, Deasy PB (1998) Formulation development and in vivo evaluation of a novel bioadhesive lozenge containing a synergistic combination of antifungal agents. Int J Pharm 173:13–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(98)00228-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Constantin M, Fundueanu G, Cortesi R, Esposito E, Nastruzzi C (2003) Aminated polysaccharide microspheres as DNA delivery systems. Drug Delivery 10:139–149.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10717540390215537CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cortesi R, Nastruzzi C, Davis S (1998) Sugar cross-linked gelatin for controlled release: microspheres and disks. Biomaterials 19:1641–1649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dakhil S, Ensminger W, Cho K, Niederhuber J, Doan K, Wheeler R (1982) Improved regional selectivity of hepatic arterial BCNU with degradable microspheres. Cancer 50:631–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Das NG, Das SK (2004) Development of mucoadhesive dosage forms of buprenorphine for sublingual drug delivery. Drug Delivery: J Delivery Target Ther Agents 11:89–95.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10717540490280688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Desai KGH (2005) Preparation and characteristics of high-amylose corn starch/pectin blend microparticles: a technical note. AAPS PharmSciTech 6:E202–E208.  https://doi.org/10.1208/pt060230CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Desai KG (2007) Properties of tableted high-amylose corn starch-pectin blend microparticles intended for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium. J Biomater Appl 21:217–233.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0885328206056771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Devy J, Balasse E, Kaplan H, Madoulet C, Andry MC (2006) Hydroxyethylstarch microcapsules: a preliminary study for tumor immunotherapy application. Int J Pharm 307:194–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2005.09.035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dong D et al (2016) In Situ “Clickable” Zwitterionic Starch-based hydrogel for 3D cell encapsulation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:4442–4455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dragan ES, Apopei DF (2013) Multiresponsive macroporous semi-IPN composite hydrogels based on native or anionically modified potato starch. Carbohydr Polym 92:23–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.08.082CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dragan ES, Perju MM, Dinu MV (2012) Preparation and characterization of IPN composite hydrogels based on polyacrylamide and chitosan and their interaction with ionic dyes. Carbohydr Polym 88:270–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dragan ES, Apopei Loghin DF, Cocarta A-I, Doroftei M (2016) Multi-stimuli-responsive semi-IPN cryogels with native and anionic potato starch entrapped in poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) matrix and their potential in drug delivery. React Funct Polym 105:66–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2016.05.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eid M (2008) In vitro release studies of vitamin B12 from poly N-vinyl pyrrolidone/starch hydrogels grafted with acrylic acid synthesized by gamma radiation. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Section B: Beam Interact Mater Atoms 266:5020–5026.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2008.09.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. El-Arnaouty M, Eid M, Abdel Ghaffar A (2015a) Radiation synthesis of stimuli responsive micro-porous hydrogels for controlled drug release of aspirin. Polym-Plast Technol Eng 54:1215–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. El-Arnaouty MB, Abdel Ghaffar AM, Aboulfotouh ME, Taher NH, Taha AA (2015b) Radiation synthesis and characterization of Poly(butyl methacrylate/acrylamide) copolymeric hydrogels and heparin controlled drug release. Polym Bull 72:2739–2756.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-015-1433-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Elvira C, Mano JF, San Roman J, Reis RL (2002) Starch-based biodegradable hydrogels with potential biomedical applications as drug delivery systems. Biomaterials 23:1955–1966.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0142-9612(01)00322-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Engelberth SA, Hempel N, Bergkvist M (2015) Chemically modified dendritic starch: a novel nanomaterial for siRNA delivery. Bioconjug Chem 26:1766–1774PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ensminger WD, Gyves JW, Stetson P, Walker-Andrews S (1985) Phase I study of hepatic arterial degradable starch microspheres and mitomycin. Cancer Res 45:4464–4467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fallingborg J, Christensen LA, Jacobsen BA, Rasmussen SN (1993) Very low intraluminal colonic pH in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci 38:1989–1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Faroongsarng D, Sukonrat P (2008) Thermal behavior of water in the selected starch- and cellulose-based polymeric hydrogels. Int J Pharm 352:152–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.10.022CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fathi M, Entezami AA, Arami S, Rashidi M-R (2015) Preparation of N-Isopropylacrylamide/Itaconic acid magnetic nanohydrogels by modified starch as a crosslinker for anticancer drug carriers. Int J Polym Mater Polym Biomater 64:541–549.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00914037.2014.996703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Freire C, Podczeck F, Ferreira D, Veiga F, Sousa J, Pena A (2010) Assessment of the in-vivo drug release from pellets film-coated with a dispersion of high amylose starch and ethylcellulose for potential colon delivery. J Pharm Pharmacol 62:55–61.  https://doi.org/10.1211/jpp.62.01.0005CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fundueanu G, Constantin M, Ascenzi P, Simionescu BC (2010) An intelligent multicompartmental system based on thermo-sensitive starch microspheres for temperature-controlled release of drugs. Biomed Microdevices 12:693–704.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10544-010-9422-5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Funke U, Lindhauer MG (2001) Effect of reaction conditions and alkyl chain lengths on the properties of hydroxyalkyl starch ethers. Starch - Stärke 53:547–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Galgatte UC, Khanchandani SS, Jadhav YG, Chaudhari PD (2013) Investigation of different polymers, plasticizers and superdisintegrating agents alone and in combination for use in the formulation of fast dissolving oral films. Int J PharmTech Res 5:1465–1472Google Scholar
  54. Galloway G, Biliaderis C, Stanley D (1989) Properties and structure of amylose-glyceryl monostearate complexes formed in solution or on extrusion of wheat flour. J Food Sci 54:950–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ganta S, Devalapally H, Shahiwala A, Amiji M (2008) A review of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery. J Controlled Release 126:187–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gils PS, Ray D, Mohanta GP, Manavalan R, Sahoo PK (2009) Designing of new acrylic based macroporous superabsorbent polymer hydrogel and its suitability for drug delivery. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 1:43–54Google Scholar
  57. Godbey W, Wu KK, Mikos AG (1999) Tracking the intracellular path of poly (ethylenimine)/DNA complexes for gene delivery. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96:5177–5181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Godet M, Bouchet B, Colonna P, Gallant D, Buleon A (1996) Crystalline amylose-fatty acid complexes: morphology and crystal thickness. J Food Sci 61:1196–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Grinberg O, Gedanken A (2010) The development and characterization of starch microspheres prepared by a sonochemical method for the potential drug delivery of insulin. Macromol Chem Phys 211:924–931.  https://doi.org/10.1002/macp.200900613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Guilherme MR et al (2012) Albumin release from a brain-resembling superabsorbent magnetic hydrogel based on starch. Soft Matter 8:6629–6637.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c2sm25638jCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Güler MA, Gök MK, Figen AK, Özgümüş S (2015) Swelling, mechanical and mucoadhesion properties of Mt/starch-g-PMAA nanocomposite hydrogels. Appl Clay Sci 112:44–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hamdi G, Ponchel G, Duchêne D (1998) An original method for studying in vitro the enzymatic degradation of cross-linked starch microspheres. J Controlled Release 55:193–201.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-3659(98)00055-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hamidian H, Tavakoli T (2016) Preparation of a new Fe3O4/starch-g-polyester nanocomposite hydrogel and a study on swelling and drug delivery properties. Carbohydr Polym 144:140–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.02.048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Han X, Zhang X, Yin Q, Hu J, Liu H, Hu Y (2013) Thermoresponsive diblock copolymer with tunable soluble–insoluble and soluble–insoluble–soluble transitions. Macromol Rapid Commun 34:574–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hata H, Matsuzaki H, Sanada I, Takatsuk K (1990) Genetic analysis of amylase-producing cell lines: ectopic activation of the amylase gene by translocation. Jpn J Clin Oncol 20:246–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Haug A, Larsen B (1963) The solubility of alginate at low pH. Acta Chem Scand 17:1653–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Heinemann C, Zinsli M, Renggli A, Escher F, Conde-Petit B (2005) Influence of amylose-flavor complexation on build-up and breakdown of starch structures in aqueous food model systems LWT-Food. Sci Technol 38:885–894Google Scholar
  68. Helaly  FM,  Khalaf  AI,  El  Nashar  D  (2013)  Starch  cellulose  acetate  co-acrylate  (SCAA)  polymer  as  a  drug  carrier.  Res  Chem  Intermed  39:3209–3220.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-012-0833-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Holmberg K, Bjork E, Bake B, Edman P (1994) Influence of degradable starch microspheres on the human nasal mucosa. Rhinology 32:74–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hong Y, Liu G, Gu Z (2016) Recent advances of starch-based excipients used in extended-release tablets: a review. Drug Delivery 23:12–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Huang Y, Ding S, Liu M, Gao C, Yang J, Zhang X, Ding B (2013) Ultra-small and anionic starch nanospheres: Formation and vitro thrombolytic behavior study. Carbohydr Polym 96:426–434.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.04.013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Huang Y, Liu M, Gao C, Yang J, Zhang X, Zhang X, Liu Z (2013) Ultra-small and innocuous cationic starch nanospheres: preparation, characterization and drug delivery study. Int J Biol Macromol 58:231–239.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.04.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hui A, Sheardown H, Jones L (2012) Acetic and acrylic acid molecular imprinted model silicone hydrogel materials for ciprofloxacin-HCl delivery. Materials 5:85–107PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Huo W, Xie G, Zhang W, Wang W, Shan J, Liu H, Zhou X (2016) Preparation of a novel chitosan-microcapsules/starch blend film and the study of its drug-release mechanism. Int J Biol Macromol 87:114–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.02.049PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ismail H, Irani M, Ahmad Z (2013) Starch-based hydrogels: present status and applications. Int J Polym Mater Polym Biomater 62:411–420.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00914037.2012.719141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jane J-l, Robyt JF (1984) Structure studies of amylose-V complexes and retro-graded amylose by action of alpha amylases, and a new method for preparing amylodextrins. Carbohydr Res 132:105–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jie Z, Jian Z, Allan ED, Victor CY (2013) Magnetic tumor targeting of β-glucosidase immobilized iron oxide nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 24:375102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jin S, Liu M, Zhang F, Chen S, Niu A (2006) Synthesis and characterization of pH-sensitivity semi-IPN hydrogel based on hydrogen bond between poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) and poly(acrylic acid). Polymer 47:1526–1532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2006.01.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Joseph J, Viney S, Beck B, Strange C, Sahn SA, Basran GS (1992) A prospective study of amylase-rich pleural effusions with special reference to amylase isoenzyme analysis. Chest 102:1455–1459.  https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.102.5.1455CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jovic M, Sharma M, Rahajeng J, Caplan S (2010) The early endosome: a busy sorting station for proteins at the crossroads. Histol Histopathol 25:99–112PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Ju B, Yan D, Zhang S (2012) Micelles self-assembled from thermoresponsive 2-hydroxy-3-butoxypropyl starches for drug delivery. Carbohydr Polym 87:1404–1409.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.09.028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ju B, Zhang C, Zhang S (2014) Thermoresponsive starch derivates with widely tuned LCSTs by introducing short oligo(ethylene glycol) spacers. Carbohydr Polym 108:307–312.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.02.057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Karrout Y et al (2011) Peas starch-based film coatings for site-specific drug delivery to the colon. J Appl Polym Sci 119:1176–1184.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.32802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kichler A (2004) Gene transfer with modified polyethylenimines. J Gene Med 6:S3–S10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kim J-Y, Huber KC (2016) Preparation and characterization of corn starch-β-carotene composites. Carbohydr Polym 136:394–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kim H-Y, Park SS, Lim S-T (2015) Preparation, characterization and utilization of starch nanoparticles Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 126:607–620.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.11.011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kommareddy S, Amiji M (2005) Preparation and evaluation of thiol-modified gelatin nanoparticles for intracellular DNA delivery in response to glutathione. Bioconjug Chem 16:1423–1432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kovacs AF, Turowski B (2002) Chemoembolization of oral and oropharyngeal cancer using a high-dose cisplatin crystal suspension and degradable starch microspheres. Oral Oncol 38:87–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1368-8375(01)00088-4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Krishnaiah Y, Reddy PB, Satyanarayana V, Karthikeyan R (2002) Studies on the development of oral colon targeted drug delivery systems for metronidazole in the treatment of amoebiasis. Int J Pharm 236:43–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kumar P, Ganure AL, Subudhi BB, Shukla S (2015) Preparation and characterization of pH-sensitive methyl methacrylate-g-starch/hydroxypropylated starch hydrogels: in vitro and in vivo study on release of esomeprazole magnesium. Drug Delivery Transl Res 5:243–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kwag DS, Oh KT, Lee ES (2014) Facile synthesis of multilayered polysaccharidic vesicles. J Controlled Release 187:83–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.05.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Larionov NV, Ponchel G, Duchene D, Larionova NI (1999) Biodegradable cross-linked starch/protein microcapsules containing proteinase inhibitor for oral protein administration. Int J Pharm 189:171–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(99)00249-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Le Corre D, Bras J, Dufresne A (2010) Starch nanoparticles: a review. Biomacromol 11:1139–1153.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm901428yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lechardeur D, Lukacs GL (2002) Intracellular barriers to non-viral gene transfer. Curr Gene Ther 2:183–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lechardeur D et al (1999) Metabolic instability of plasmid DNA in the cytosol: a potential barrier to gene transfer. Gene Ther 6:482–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lesmes U, Barchechath J, Shimoni E (2008) Continuous dual feed homogenization for the production of starch inclusion complexes for controlled release of nutrients. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 9:507–515.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2007.12.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Li Y, de Vries R, Slaghek T, Timmermans J, Cohen Stuart MA, Norde W (2009) Preparation and characterization of oxidized starch polymer microgels for encapsulation and controlled release of functional ingredients. Biomacromol 10:1931–1938.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm900337nCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Li Y, Kleijn JM, Stuart MAC, Slaghek T, Timmermans J, Norde W (2011a) Mobility of lysozyme inside oxidized starch polymer microgels. Soft Matter 7:1926–1935.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c0sm00962hCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Li Y, Zhang Z, Van Leeuwen HP, Cohen Stuart MA, Norde W, Kleijn JM (2011b) Uptake and release kinetics of lysozyme in and from an oxidized starch polymer microgel. Soft Matter 7:10377–10385.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c1sm06072dCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Li Y, Liu C, Tan Y, Xu K, Lu C, Wang P (2014) situ hydrogel constructed by starch-based nanoparticles via a Schiff base reaction. Carbohydr Polym 110:87–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.03.058CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Li K et al (2015) Mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers assembled with apogossypolone amphiphilic starch micelles and doxorubicin hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for tumor combination and targeted therapy. Biomaterials 39:131–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.10.073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Li J, Shin GH, Lee IW, Chen X, Park HJ (2016) Soluble starch formulated nanocomposite increases water solubility and stability of curcumin. Food Hydrocolloids 56:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Likhitkar S, Bajpai AK (2012) Magnetically controlled release of cisplatin from superparamagnetic starch nanoparticles. Carbohydr Polym 87:300–308.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Likhitkar S, Bajpai AK (2014) An in vitro experimental approach to study magnetically targeted release of methotrexate from superparamagnetic starch nanocarriers. Int J Polym Mater and Polym Biomater 63:941–950.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00914037.2014.886232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lima-Tenório MK, Tenório-Neto ET, Guilherme MR, Garcia FP, Nakamura CV, Pineda EAG, Rubira AF (2015) Water transport properties through starch-based hydrogel nanocomposites responding to both pH and a remote magnetic field. Chem Eng J 259:620–629.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.08.045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Liu L, Fishman ML, Kost J, Hicks KB (2003) Pectin-based systems for colon-specific drug delivery via oral route. Biomaterials 24:3333–3343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Liu C, Gan X, Chen Y (2011) A novel pH-sensitive hydrogels for potential colon-specific drug delivery: characterization and in vitro release studies. Starch - Stärke 63:503–511.  https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201000120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Liu K, Wang Y, Li H, Duan Y (2015) A facile one-pot synthesis of starch functionalized graphene as nano-carrier for pH sensitive and starch-mediated drug delivery. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 128:86–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.02.010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Liu M et al (2016) Fabrication and biological imaging application of AIE-active luminescent starch based nanoprobes. Carbohydr Polym 142:38–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lorelius LE, Benedetto AR, Blumhardt R, Gaskill HV 3rd, Lancaster JL, Stridbeck H (1984) Enhanced drug retention in VX2 tumors by use of degradable starch microspheres. Invest Radiol 19:212–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mahkam M (2010) Modified chitosan cross-linked starch polymers for oral insulin delivery. J Bioact Compatible Polym 25:406–418.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0883911510369038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Mamada A, Tanaka T, Kungwatchakun D, Irie M (1990) Photoinduced phase transition of gels. Macromolecules 23:1517–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Mehyar GF, Liu Z, Han JH (2008) Dynamics of antimicrobial hydrogels in physiological saline. Carbohydr Polym 74:92–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.01.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Meng F, Hennink WE, Zhong Z (2009) Reduction-sensitive polymers and bioconjugates for biomedical applications. Biomaterials 30:2180–2198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Misic Z, Urbani R, Pfohl T, Muffler K, Sydow G, Kuentz M (2014) Understanding biorelevant drug release from a novel thermoplastic capsule by considering microstructural formulation changes during hydration. Pharm Res 31:194–203.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-013-1152-yCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Mohanty DP, Biswal S, Nayak L (2015) Preparation of starch-chitosan nanocomposites for control drug release of curcumin. Int J Curr Eng Technol 5:336–343Google Scholar
  117. Nitta SK, Numata K (2013) Biopolymer-based nanoparticles for drug/gene delivery and tissue engineering. Int J Mol Sci 14:1629–1654.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14011629CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Noakes M, Clifton PM, Nestel PJ, Le Leu R, McIntosh G (1996) Effect of high-amylose starch and oat bran on metabolic variables and bowel function in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Clin Nutr 64:944–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Noga M et al (2013) The effect of molar mass and degree of hydroxyethylation on the controlled shielding and deshielding of hydroxyethyl starch-coated polyplexes. Biomaterials 34:2530–2538.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.12.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Noga M, Edinger D, Wagner E, Winter G, Besheer A (2014) Characterization and compatibility of hydroxyethyl starch-polyethylenimine copolymers for DNA delivery. J Biomater Sci-Polym Edn 25:855–871.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2014.910152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Patten GS, Augustin MA, Sanguansri L, Head RJ, Abeywardena MY (2009) Site specific delivery of microencapsulated fish oil to the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. Dig Dis Sci 54:511–521.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-008-0379-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Peppas NA (1997) Hydrogels and drug delivery. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2:531–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pereira AGB, Fajardo AR, Nocchi S, Nakamura CV, Rubira AF, Muniz EC (2013) Starch-based microspheres for sustained-release of curcumin: preparation and cytotoxic effect on tumor cells. Carbohydr Polym 98:711–720.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.06.013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Plamper FA, Ruppel M, Schmalz A, Borisov O, Ballauff M, Müller AH (2007) Tuning the thermoresponsive properties of weak polyelectrolytes: aqueous solutions of star-shaped and linear poly (N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) Macromolecules 40:8361–8366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pourjamal K, Fathi M, Entezami AA, Hasanzadeh M, Shadjou N (2016) Superabsorbent nanohydrogels of poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) grafted on starch: Synthesis and swelling study. Nano LIFE 06:1650005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pourjavadi A, Ebrahimi AA, Barzegar S (2013) Preparation and evaluation of bioactive and compatible starch based superabsorbent for oral drug delivery systems. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 23:511–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pourjavadi A, Tehrani ZM, Hosseini SH (2015) Dendritic magnetite decorated by pH-responsive PEGylated starch: a smart multifunctional nanocarrier for the triggered release of anti-cancer drugs. RSC Advances 5:48586–48595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Putseys J, Lamberts L, Delcour J (2010) Amylose-inclusion complexes: formation, identity and physico-chemical properties. J Cereal Sci 51:238–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ramasubbu N, Paloth V, Luo Y, Brayer GD, Levine MJ (1996) Structure of human salivary α-amylase at 1.6 A resolution: implications for its role in the oral cavity. Acta Crystallogr Sect D: Struct Biol 52:435–446.  https://doi.org/10.1107/S0907444995014119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rodrigues A, Emeje M (2012) Recent applications of starch derivatives in nanodrug delivery. Carbohydr Polym 87:987–994.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.09.044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Saboktakin MR, Maharramov A, Ramazanov MA, Mahkam M (2007) Modification of carboxymethyl starch as nano carriers for oral drug delivery. Nat Sci 5:30–36Google Scholar
  132. Saboktakin MR, Maharramov A, Ramazanov MA (2009a) pH-sensitive starch hydrogels via free radical graft copolymerization, synthesis and properties. Carbohydr Polym 77:634–638.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.02.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Saboktakin MR, Maharramov A, Ramazanov MA (2009b) Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles coated with carboxymethyl starch (CMS) for magnetic resonance imaging technique. Carbohydr Polym 78:292–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.03.042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Saboktakin MR, Tabatabaie RM, Maharramov A, Ramazanov MA (2011) Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of carboxymethyl starch-chitosan nanoparticles as drug delivery system to the colon. Int J Biol Macromol 48:381–385.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2010.10.005CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sadeghi M, Hosseinzadeh H (2008) Synthesis of starch-poly(sodium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel with salt and pH-responsiveness properties as a drug delivery system. J Bioact Compatible Polym 23:381–404.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0883911508093504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Saikia C, Hussain A, Ramteke A, Sharma HK, Maji TK (2014) Crosslinked thiolated starch coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles: effect of montmorillonite and crosslinking density on drug delivery properties. Starch - Stärke 66:760–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Saikia C, Hussain A, Ramteke A, Sharma HK, Maji TK (2015) Carboxymethyl starch-chitosan-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for controlled delivery of isoniazid. J Microencapsul 32:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Saikia C, Das MK, Ramteke A, Maji TK (2016) Effect of crosslinker on drug delivery properties of curcumin loaded starch coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Int J Biol Macromol 93:1121–1132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Saikia C, Das MK, Ramteke A, Maji TK (2017) Evaluation of folic acid tagged aminated starch/ZnO coated iron oxide nanoparticles as targeted curcumin delivery system. Carbohydr Polym 157:391–399.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.09.087CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sarko A, Wu HC (1978) The crystal structures of A-, B- and C-Polymorphs of amylose and starch. Starch - Stärke 30:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sasaki Y, Hada R, Nakajima H, Fukuda S, Munakata A (1997) Improved localizing method of radiopill in measurement of entire gastrointestinal pH profiles: colonic luminal pH in normal subjects and patients with Crohn’s disease. Am J Gastroenterol 92Google Scholar
  142. Schmitt H, Creton N, Prashantha K, Soulestin J, Lacrampe MF, Krawczak P (2015) Melt-blended halloysite nanotubes/wheat starch nanocomposites as drug delivery system. Polym Eng Sci 55:573–580.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.23919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Schwoerer A, Harling S, Menzel H, Daniels R (2008) Release behaviour of hydrogel microparticles based on hydroxyl-ethyl-starch as a drug delivery system for proteins. J. Controlled Release. 132:e16–e17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2008.09.050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Schwoerer ADA, Harling S, Scheibe K, Menzel H, Daniels R (2009) Influence of degree of substitution of HES-HEMA on the release of incorporated drug models from corresponding hydrogels. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 73:351–356.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2009.08.003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Setty CM, Deshmukh AS, Badiger AM (2014) Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted maize starch based microbeads: application in pH responsive drug delivery. Int J Biol Macromol 70:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.06.027CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Shaikh MMM, Gramopadhye NS, Wardole AA, Lonikar SV (2015) Starch-acrylic acid hydrogel: synthesis, characterization and drug release studyGoogle Scholar
  147. Shalviri A et al (2012) pH-Dependent doxorubicin release from terpolymer of starch, polymethacrylic acid and polysorbate 80 nanoparticles for overcoming multi-drug resistance in human breast cancer cells. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 82:587–597.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2012.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Shalviri A, Chan HK, Raval G, Abdekhodaie MJ, Liu Q, Heerklotz H, Wu XY (2013) Design of pH-responsive nanoparticles of terpolymer of poly(methacrylic acid), polysorbate 80 and starch for delivery of doxorubicin. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 101:405–413.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.07.015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Shenoy DB, Amiji MM (2005) Poly (ethylene oxide)-modified poly (ɛ-caprolactone) nanoparticles for targeted delivery of tamoxifen in breast cancer. Int J Pharm 293:261–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Shenoy D, Little S, Langer R, Amiji M (2005) Poly (ethylene oxide)-modified poly (β-amino ester) nanoparticles as a pH-sensitive system for tumor-targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs: part 2. In vivo distribution and tumor localization studies. Pharm Res 22:2107–2114PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Shi J, Votruba AR, Farokhzad OC, Langer R (2010) Nanotechnology in drug delivery and tissue engineering: from discovery to applications. Nano Lett 10:3223–3230.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nl102184cCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Shiba H, Okamoto T, Futagawa Y, Misawa T, Yanaga K, Ohashi T, Eto Y (2006) Adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer using degradable starch microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. J Surg Res 133:193–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2005.10.023CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Shiga T, Hirose Y, Okada A, Kurauchi T (1992) Electric field-associated deformation of polyelectrolyte gel near a phase transition point. J Agric Food Chem 46:635–640Google Scholar
  154. Sieradzki R, Traitel T, Goldbart R, Geresh S, Kost J (2014) Tailoring quaternized starch as a non-viral carrier for gene delivery applications. Polym Adv Technol 25:552–561.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.3277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sigurdson ER, Ridge JA, Daly JM (1986) Intra-arterial infusion of doxorubicin with degradable starch microspheres: improvement of hepatic tumor drug uptake. Arch Surg 121:1277–1281.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1986.01400110067011CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sinha V, Kumria R (2001) Polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery. Int J Pharm 224:19–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Situ W, Chen L, Wang X, Li X (2014) Resistant starch film-coated microparticles for an oral colon-specific polypeptide delivery system and its release behaviors. J Agric Food Chem 62:3599–3609.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf500472bCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Situ W, Li X, Liu J, Chen L (2015) Preparation and characterization of glycoprotein-resistant starch complex as a coating material for oral bioadhesive microparticles for colon-targeted polypeptide delivery. J Agric Food Chem 63:4138–4147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Smith BW, Roe JH (1949) A photometric method for the determination of α-amylase in blood and urine, with use of the starch-iodine color. J Biol Chem 179:53–59Google Scholar
  160. Soares GA, Carbinatto FM, Cury BSF, Evangelista RC (2013a) Effect of drying technique on some physical properties of cross-linked high amylose/pectin mixtures. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 39:284–289.  https://doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2012.679278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Soares GA, Castro ADD, Cury BSF, Evangelista RC (2013b) Blends of cross-linked high amylose starch/pectin loaded with diclofenac. Carbohydr Polym 91:135–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.08.014CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. Subramanian SB, Francis AP, Devasena T (2014) Chitosan-starch nanocomposite particles as a drug carrier for the delivery of bis-desmethoxy curcumin analog. Carbohydr Polym 114:170–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.07.053CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Surini S, Anggriani V, Anwar E (2009) Study of mucoadhesive microspheres based on pregelatinized cassava starch succinate as a new carrier for drug delivery. J Med Sci 9:249–256.  https://doi.org/10.3923/jms.2009.249.256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Tan HL, Wong YY, Muniyandy S, Hashim K, Pushpamalar J (2016) Carboxymethyl sago pulp/carboxymethyl sago starch hydrogel: effect of polymer mixing ratio and study of controlled drug release. J Appl Polym Sci 133:43652.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.43652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Tan Y, Xu K, Li Y, Sun S, Wang P (2010) A robust route to fabricate starch esters vesicles. Chem Commun 46:4523–4525.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C000471EPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Thakur BR, Singh RK, Handa AK, Rao M (1997) Chemistry and uses of pectin—a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37:47–73Google Scholar
  167. Thiele C, Loretz B, Lehr C-M (2017) Biodegradable starch derivatives with tunable charge density—synthesis, characterization, and transfection efficiency. Drug Delivery Transl Res 7:252–258.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13346-016-0333-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Thom AK, Reilly CA, Deveney CW, Hansell JR, Neufeld GR, Daly JM (1988) The use of quantitative perfusion fluorometry to measure relative tumor and liver blood flow after transient microembolization. J Surg Res 45:128–133PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. Thombre NA, Chaudhari MR, Kadam SS (2009) Preparation and characterization of rofecoxib microspheres using cross-linked starch as novel drug delivery system. Int J PharmTech Res 1:1394–1402Google Scholar
  170. Thompson DB (2000) Strategies for the manufacture of resistant starch. Trends Food Sci Technol 11:245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Torres FG, Commeaux S, Troncoso OP (2013) Starch-based biomaterials for wound-dressing applications. Starch - Stärke 65:543–551.  https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201200259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tuma RF, Forsberg JO, Agerup B (1982) Enhanced uptake of actinomycin D in the dog kidney by simultaneous injection of degradable starch microspheres into the renal artery. Cancer 50:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tuovinen L, Peltonen S, Liikola M, Hotakainen M, Lahtela-Kakkonen M, Poso A, Jarvinen K (2004a) Drug release from starch-acetate microparticles and films with and without incorporated alpha-amylase. Biomaterials 25:4355–4362.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2003.11.026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Tuovinen L et al (2004b) Starch acetate microparticles for drug delivery into retinal pigment epithelium—in vitro study. J Controlled Release 98:407–413.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2004.05.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Vakili MR, Rahneshin N (2013) Synthesis and characterization of novel stimuli-responsive hydrogels based on starch and L-aspartic acid. Carbohydra Polym 98:1624–1630.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.08.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. van Veen B, Pajander J, Zuurman K, Lappalainen R, Poso A, Frijlink HW, Ketolainen J (2005) The effect of powder blend and tablet structure on drug release mechanisms of hydrophobic starch acetate matrix tablets. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 61:149–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2005.04.007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Veiseh O, Tang BC, Whitehead KA, Anderson DG, Langer R (2015) Managing diabetes with nanomedicine: challenges and opportunities. Nat Rev Drug Discov 14:45–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Wang Q, Hu X, Du Y, Kennedy JF (2010) Alginate/starch blend fibers and their properties for drug controlled release. Carbohydr Polym 82:842–847.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.06.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Wang J, Liu H, Leng F, Zheng L, Yang J, Wang W, Huang CZ (2014) Autofluorescent and pH-responsive mesoporous silica for cancer-targeted and controlled drug release. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 186:187–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2013.11.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Watts P, Smith A (2005) TARGIT technology: coated starch capsules for site-specific drug delivery into the lower gastrointestinal tract. Expert Opin Drug Delivery 2:159–167.  https://doi.org/10.1517/17425247.2.1.159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Wolfert MA et al (1999) Polyelectrolyte vectors for gene delivery: influence of cationic polymer on biophysical properties of complexes formed with DNA. Bioconjug Chem 10:993–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Wu D-Q, Sun Y-X, Xu X-D, Cheng S-X, Zhang X-Z, Zhuo R-X (2008) Biodegradable and pH-sensitive hydrogels for cell encapsulation and controlled drug release. Biomacromol 9:1155–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wu C, Yang J, Xu X, Gao C, Lü S, Liu M (2016) Redox-responsive core-cross-linked mPEGylated starch micelles as nanocarriers for intracellular anticancer drug release. Eur Polym J 83:230–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2016.08.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Xiao H, Yang T, Lin Q, Liu GQ, Zhang L, Yu F, Chen Y (2016) Acetylated starch nanocrystals: preparation and antitumor drug delivery study. Int J Biol Macromol 89:456–464.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.04.037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Xu H, Cao W, Zhang X (2013) Selenium-containing polymers: promising biomaterials for controlled release and enzyme mimics. Acc Chem Res 46:1647–1658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Xuan Phuc N et al (2012) Iron oxide-based conjugates for cancer theragnostics. Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol 3:033001.  https://doi.org/10.1088/2043-6262/3/3/033001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Yamada H, Loretz B, Lehr C-M (2014) Design of starch-graft-PEI polymers: an effective and biodegradable gene delivery platform. Biomacromol 15:1753–1761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Yang L, Chu JS, Fix JA (2002) Colon-specific drug delivery: new approaches and in vitro/in vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm 235:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Yang Y, Jiang JS, Du B, Gan ZF, Qian M, Zhang P (2009) Preparation and properties of a novel drug delivery system with both magnetic and biomolecular targeting. J Mater Sci Mater Med 20:301–307.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-008-3577-0CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Yang Y-H, Aloysius H, Inoyama D, Chen Y, Hu L-Q (2011) Enzyme-mediated hydrolytic activation of prodrugs. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B 1:143–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Yang LQ, Zhang BF, Yi JZ, Liang JB, Liu YL, Zhang LM (2013) Preparation, characterization, and properties of amylose-ibuprofen inclusion complexes. Starch - Stärke 65:593–602.  https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201200161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Yang J, Gao C, Lü S, Zhang X, Yu C, Liu M (2014a) Physicochemical characterization of amphiphilic nanoparticles based on the novel starch–deoxycholic acid conjugates and self-aggregates. Carbohydr Polym 102:838–845.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.10.081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Yang J, Huang Y, Gao C, Liu M, Zhang X (2014b) Fabrication and evaluation of the novel reduction-sensitive starch nanoparticles for controlled drug release. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 115:368–376.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.12.007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Yang JL, Gao CM, Lu SY, Wang XG, Chen MJ, Liu MZ (2014c) Novel self-assembled amphiphilic mPEGylated starch-deoxycholic acid polymeric micelles with pH-response for anticancer drug delivery. RSC Advances 4:55139–55149.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra07315kCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Yoon H-S, Lee J, Lim S-T (2009) Utilization of retrograded waxy maize starch gels as tablet matrix for controlled release of theophylline. Carbohydr Polym 76:449–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Yoshikawa T et al (1994) Antitumor effect of ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by transient embolization. Cancer Res 54:5033–5035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Zhang A et al (2013a) Redox-sensitive shell-crosslinked polypeptide-block-polysaccharide micelles for efficient intracellular anticancer drug delivery. Macromol Biosci 13:1249–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Zhang AP et al (2013b) Disulfide crosslinked PEGylated starch micelles as efficient intracellular drug delivery platforms. Soft Matter 9:2224–2233.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c2sm27189cCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Zhang LM, Yang C, Yan L (2005) Perspectives on: strategies to fabricate starch-based hydrogels with potential biomedical applications. J Bioact Compatible Polym 20:297–314.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0883911505053882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Zhang L, Liu Y, Wu Z, Chen H (2009) Preparation and characterization of coacervate microcapsules for the delivery of antimicrobial oyster peptides. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 35:369–378.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03639040802369255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Zhang Z, Shan HL, Chen L, He CL, Zhuang XL, Chen XS (2013c) Synthesis of pH-responsive starch nanoparticles grafted poly (L-glutamic acid) for insulin controlled release. Eur Polym J 49:2082–2091.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2013.04.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Zhao Q, Sun J, Lin Y, Zhou Q (2010) Study of the properties of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide hydrogels with various pore structures and rapid pH-sensitivities. React Funct Polym 70:602–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Zhao Q, Sun J, Wu X, Lin Y (2011) Macroporous double-network cryogels: formation mechanism, enhanced mechanical strength and temperature/pH dual sensitivity. Soft Matter 7:4284–4293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Zohreh N, Hosseini SH, Pourjavadi A (2016) Hydrazine-modified starch coated magnetic nanoparticles as an effective pH-responsive nanocarrier for doxorubicin delivery. J Ind Eng Chem 39:203–209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2016.05.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety, School of Food Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Engineering Research Center of Starch and Protein ProcessingSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.International Institute for Nanocomposites Manufacturing (IINM), WMGUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations