Thermal Behavior in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics, Effects and Control

  • Bintao Wu
  • Zengxi PanEmail author
  • Stephen van Duin
  • Huijun Li
Conference paper
Part of the Transactions on Intelligent Welding Manufacturing book series (TRINWM)


Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) has attracted significant attention in the manufacturing industry due to its ability to economically produce large-scale metal components with a relatively high buy-to-fly ratio. To date, a wide range of engineering materials has become associated with this process and application. As an electric arc and additive deposition have been combined, the complex heat transfer and thermal cycles cause several material processing challenges in WAAM. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the thermal characteristics during a WAAM process and identifies the thermal behavior effects on the process stability, geometrical accuracy and material properties of the deposited part. An innovative method for controlling thermal profiles during the build process is proposed and discussed, taken in to account the requirement of the various alloys. This paper concludes that the broad application of WAAM still presents many challenges, and these may need to be addressed in specific ways for different materials in order to achieve an operational system in an acceptable time frame. Highly accurate control of thermal profiles in deposition to produce defect-free and structurally sound produced parts still remains a crucial effort into the future.


Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) Thermal profiles Process stability Material properties Active interpass cooling 



This research was carried out at the Welding Engineering Research Group, University of Wollongong. The authors would like to acknowledge the China Scholarship Council for their finical support (201506680056).


  1. 1.
    Williams SW, Martina F, Addison AC et al (2016) Wire + arc additive manufacturing. Mater Sci Technol 32(7):641–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Herzog D, Seyda V, Wycisk E et al (2016) Additive manufacturing of metals. Acta Mater 117:371–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ding D, Pan Z, Cuiuri D et al (2015) Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies, developments and future interests. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(1–4):465–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Collins PC, Brice DA, Samimi P et al (2016) Microstructural control of additively manufactured metallic materials. Annu Rev Mater Res 46(1):63–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cunningham CR, Flynn JM, Shokrani A et al (2018) Invited review article: strategies and processes for high quality wire arc additive manufacturing. Add Manuf 22:672–686Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Montevecchi F, Venturini G, Grossi N et al (2018) Idle time selection for wire-arc additive manufacturing: a finite element-based technique. Add Manuf 21:479–486Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ding J, Colegrove P, Mehnen J et al (2014) A computationally efficient finite element model of wire and arc additive manufacture. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 70(1):227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    ASTM B265-06 (2006) Sheet, and plate. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
  9. 9.
    Wu B, Ding D, Pan Z et al (2017) Effects of heat accumulation on the arc characteristics and metal transfer behavior in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Ti6Al4V. J Mater Process Technol 250:304–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ríos S, Colegrove PA, Martina F et al (2018) Analytical process model for wire + arc additive manufacturing. Add Manuf 21:651–657Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Geng H, Li J, Xiong J et al (2017) Optimization of interpass temperature and heat input for wire and arc additive manufacturing 5A06 aluminium alloy. Sci Technol Weld Joining 22(6):472–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhou X, Zhang H, Wang G et al (2016) Three-dimensional numerical simulation of arc and metal transport in arc welding based additive manufacturing. Int J Heat Mass Transf 103:521–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Geng H, Li J, Xiong J et al (2017) Optimization of wire feed for GTAW based additive manufacturing. J Mater Process Technol 243:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ahmed T, Rack HJ (1998) Phase transformations during cooling in α + β titanium alloys. Mater Sci Eng, A 243(1–2):206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brandl E, Schoberth A, Leyens C (2012) Morphology, microstructure, and hardness of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) blocks deposited by wire-feed additive layer manufacturing (ALM). Mater Sci Eng, A 532:295–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Semiatin SL, Knisley SL, Fagin PN et al (2003) Microstructure evolution during alpha-beta heat treatment of Ti-6Al-4V. Metall Mater Trans A 34(10):2377–2386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Peters M, Hemptenmacher J, Kumpfert J et al (2005) Structure and properties of Titanium and Titanium alloys, Titanium and Titanium alloys. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., pp 1–36Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Welsch G, Boyer R, Collings EW (1993) Materials properties handbook: Titanium alloys. ASM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cooper DE (2016) The high deposition rate additive manufacture of nickel superalloys and metal matrix composites. Dissertation, University of WarwickGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li F, Chen S, Shi J et al (2018) Thermoelectric cooling-aided bead geometry regulation in wire and arc-based additive manufacturing of thin-walled structures. Appl Sci 8(2):207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Murr LE (2015) Examples of directional crystal structures: gas-turbine component applications in superalloys, handbook of materials structures, properties, processing and performance. Springer, pp 375–401Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fei Z, Pan Z, Cuiuri D et al (2018) Investigation into the viability of K-TIG for joining armour grade quenched and tempered steel. J Manuf Processes 32:482–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lütjering G (1998) Influence of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of (α + β) titanium alloys. Mater Sci Eng, A 243(1–2):32–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baufeld B, van der Biest O, Gault R (2010) Additive manufacturing of Ti–6Al–4V components by shaped metal deposition: microstructure and mechanical properties. Mater Des 31(Sup 1):S106–S111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baufeld B, Brandl E, van der Biest O (2011) Wire based additive layer manufacturing: comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V components fabricated by laser-beam deposition and shaped metal deposition. J Mater Process Technol 211(6):1146–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang F, Williams S, Colegrove P et al (2013) Microstructure and mechanical properties of wire and arc additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V, metall. Mater Trans A 44(2):968–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brandl E, Baufeld B, Leyens C et al (2010) Additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V using welding wire: comparison of laser and arc beam deposition and evaluation with respect to aerospace material specifications. Phys Procedia 5:595–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Martina F, Mehnen J, Williams SW et al (2012) Investigation of the benefits of plasma deposition for the additive layer manufacture of Ti–6Al–4 V. J Mater Process Technol 212(6):1377–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lin JJ, Lv YH, Liu YX et al (2016) Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V wall deposited by pulsed plasma arc additive manufacturing. Mater Des 102:30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lin J, Lv Y, Liu Y et al (2017) Microstructural evolution and mechanical property of Ti-6Al-4V wall deposited by continuous plasma arc additive manufacturing without post heat treatment. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 69:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wu B, Pan Z, Li S et al (2018) The anisotropic corrosion behaviour of wire arc additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution. Corros Sci 137:176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Queguineur A, Rückert G, Cortial F et al (2018) Evaluation of wire arc additive manufacturing for large-sized components in naval applications. Weld World 62(2):259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xiong J, Lei Y, Li R (2017) Finite element analysis and experimental validation of thermal behavior for thin-walled parts in GMAW-based additive manufacturing with various substrate preheating temperatures. Appl Therm Eng 126:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mukherjee T, Zuback J, De A et al (2016) Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing. Sci Rep 6:19717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Denlinger ER, Heigel JC, Michaleris P et al (2015) Effect of inter-layer dwell time on distortion and residual stress in additive manufacturing of titanium and nickel alloys. J Mater Process Technol 215:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gu J, Ding J, Williams SW et al (2016) The strengthening effect of inter-layer cold working and post-deposition heat treatment on the additively manufactured Al–6.3Cu alloy. Mater Sci Eng, A 651:18–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Uriondo A, Esperon-Miguez M, Perinpanayagam S (2015) The present and future of additive manufacturing in the aerospace sector: a review of important aspects. J Aerosp Eng 229(11):2132–2147Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sing SL, An J, Yeong WY et al (2016) Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: a review on processes, materials and designs. J Orthop Res 34(3):369–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Murr LE, Gaytan S, Ceylan A et al (2010) Characterization of titanium aluminide alloy components fabricated by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting. Acta Mater 58(5):1887–1894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Guo N, Leu MC (2013) Additive manufacturing: technology, applications and research needs. Front Mech Eng 8(3):215–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kainer KU (2006) Metal matrix composites: custom-made materials for automotive and aerospace engineering. WileyGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Leyens C, Peters M (2003) Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications. WileyGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kim TB, Yue S, Zhang Z et al (2014) Additive manufactured porous titanium structures: through-process quantification of pore and strut networks. J Mater Process Technol 214(11):2706–2715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wang R, Beck FH (1983) New stainless steel without nickel or chromium for marine applications. Met Prog 123(4):72Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aziz-Kerrzo M, Conroy KG, Fenelon AM et al (2001) Electrochemical studies on the stability and corrosion resistance of titanium-based implant materials. Biomaterials 22(12):1531–1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lu G, Zangari G (2002) Corrosion resistance of ternary Ni-P based alloys in sulfuric acid solutions. Electrochim Acta 47(18):2969–2979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stoloff N, Liu C, Deevi S (2000) Emerging applications of intermetallics. Intermetallics 8(9):1313–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Varghese OK, Gong D, Paulose M et al (2003) Crystallization and high-temperature structural stability of titanium oxide nanotube arrays. J Mater Res 18(1):156–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bewlay B, Jackson M, Subramanian P et al (2003) A review of very-high-temperature Nb-silicide-based composites. Metall Mater Trans A 34(10):2043–2052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jackson M, Bewlay B, Rowe R et al (1996) High-temperature refractory metal-intermetallic composites. JOM 48(1):39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bissacco G, Hansen HN, de Chiffre L (2005) Micromilling of hardened tool steel for mould making applications. J Mater Process Technol 167(2):201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yan L (2013) Wire and arc addictive manufacture (WAAM) reusable tooling investigationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bintao Wu
    • 1
  • Zengxi Pan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephen van Duin
    • 1
  • Huijun Li
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical, Materials, Mechatronic and Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations