Analysis of Asu (阿修) and Gaoyue (高月) Recorded in the Indian Calendar, Jiuzhi-Li (九執暦)

  • Eun Hee Lee
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP, volume 54)


The Indian Navagraha Calendar was translated into Chinese by Gutama Siddha (瞿曇悉達) who was an official astronomer and astrologer during the Tang 唐 Dynasty (AD 618–906). In China it was called the Jiuzhi-li (九執曆) which means the calendar of ‘Nine Luminaries’, namely the Sun, Moon, five planets and two imaginary stars, Rahu (羅睺) and Ketu (計都). In the Jiuzhi-li, however, the term Rahu is mentioned as Asu (阿修), and Ketu is not seen in the text. Instead, the term Gaoyue (高月), which means the lunar apogee, is explained. This paper examines and discusses the astronomical meaning and constants of Asu and Gaoyue described in the Jiuzhi-li.



This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea, with a grant NRF-2016-R1D1A1B0393 4993 funded by the Korean Government. Especially, I would like to thank Mr. D.B. Kim and Dr. J.H. Jeon for supporting me with calculations using Meeus’ formula and its revised algorithm based on the DE431, and also Dr. M.J. Kang for helping me with the Korean translation of the Chinese Jiuzhi-li.


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© Hindustan Book Agency 2018 and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eun Hee Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Yonsei University ObservatorySeoulSouth Korea

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