Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Life Prognosis

  • Muneko NishijoEmail author
  • Hideaki Nakagawa
Part of the Current Topics in Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine book series (CTEHPM)


The increased cancer incidence and mortality associated with cadmium (Cd) exposure have been investigated worldwide, but the findings are often inconsistent. The increased mortality from cardiovascular and other non-cancer diseases has also been reported in populations exposed to Cd. In Japanese Cd-polluted areas, including one where itai-itai disease is endemic, levels of urinary Cd and renal tubular dysfunction induced by Cd exposure are associated with an increased mortality in both sexes (women > men), particularly from cardiovascular and renal diseases. However, deaths from respiratory and digestive diseases have also been recorded in patients with itai-itai disease. Significant association between Cd in rice and mortality was found only in the most polluted part of the Jinzu River basin, Toyama in Japan. These findings indicate that high-level Cd exposure, whether environmental or occupational, may adversely affect life prognosis, but more studies are required to characterize the effects of low-level Cd exposure indicated by urinary or blood Cd in general populations with different dietary and lifestyle habits.


Cadmium Mortality Causes of deaths Environmental exposure Itai-itai disease 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public HealthKanazawa Medical UniversityUchinadaJapan
  2. 2.Medical Research InstituteKanazawa Medical UniversityUchinadaJapan

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