Long-Term Follow-Up Study of Residents Exposed to Cadmium in Kakehashi River Basin, Ishikawa, Japan

  • Kazuhiro Nogawa
  • Yasushi Suwazono
  • Teruhiko KidoEmail author
Part of the Current Topics in Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine book series (CTEHPM)


The Kakehashi River basin in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, was polluted with cadmium (Cd) owing to mining activities in the early twentieth century. After mining operations ceased, all polluted soil was removed and replaced by 1988. An epidemiological study in 1981–1982 showed 19.7% of Cd-exposed residents had renal tubular dysfunction by β2-microglobulin (β2-MG)-uria. A 28-year follow-up study found renal dysfunction was irreversible. Bone damage was also found in Cd-exposed residents with renal tubular dysfunction. Biological half-life of urinary (U)-Cd was estimated as 12.4 years in men and 11.4 years in women for unadjusted U-Cd and 16.0 years in men and 20.4 years in women for creatinine-adjusted U-Cd. Age-adjusted benchmark dose limit (BMDL) of U-Cd for β2-MG-uria was 3.5 μg/g creatinine (Cr) in men and 3.7 μg/g Cr in women. The lowest BMDL of rice-Cd for β2-MG-uria was 0.25 mg/kg in men and 0.24 mg/kg in women. Lifetime Cd intake was 1.3 g.


Urinary cadmium β2-microglobulin Biological half-life Long-term follow-up study Risk assessment Benchmark dose limit Human 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuhiro Nogawa
    • 1
  • Yasushi Suwazono
    • 1
  • Teruhiko Kido
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of MedicineChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Health SciencesInstitute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa UniversityKanazawaJapan

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