Novel Mechanisms of Cadmium-Induced Toxicity in Renal Cells
Cadmium (Cd) is an important industrial agent but is also an environmental pollutant that causes kidney disease. Chronic exposure to Cd results in its accumulation in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. This causes a variety of toxic effects that result in renal cell death. Current evidence indicates early phases of Cd-induced renal injury; for example, before renal cell death, Cd induces disruption to the transcription of apoptotic-related genes, dysregulation of autophagy, disruption of cell junction protein complexes, and accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. In this review, we discuss novel factors involved in Cd renal toxicity. This review may provide new insights for further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying Cd-induced toxicity in renal cells.
KeywordsCadmium Kidney injury Apoptosis Autophagy Cell-cell junction Ubiquitination
This work was supported by the Study of the Health Effects of Heavy Metals, organized by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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