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Neurodegeneration During Aging: The Role of Oxidative Stress Through Epigenetic Modifications

  • Sweta Srivas
  • Meghraj Singh Baghel
  • Padmanabh Singh
  • Mahendra K. Thakur
Chapter

Abstract

With global rise in elderly population, there is an increase in the incidence of age-related neurological problems. Hence, achieving healthy aging is a great challenge for scientists, medical practitioners, and social workers. Aging is characterized by enormous remarkable changes in the brain at morphological, cellular, biochemical, and physiological levels leading to cognitive impairment. A key player in this process is reactive oxygen species (ROS) which causes intracellular damage leading to progressive loss of control over biological homeostasis, oxidative stress, and thereby degeneration of different neurons in the brain. Such neurodegeneration is a crucial feature of aging as well as age-related neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the processes leading to aging and associated neurological problems will help to develop the new therapeutic avenues. The cognitive processes during aging and age-associated neurological disorders are regulated by epigenetic modifications of chromatin. The expression of chromatin-modifying enzymes in turn is regulated by various factors including oxidative stress. As antioxidants prevent oxidative stress, this article reviews the role of ROS in accumulation of intracellular damage along with epigenetic modifications during aging and age-associated neurological disorders and suggests that antioxidants may prove beneficial therapies for these pathologies.

Keywords

Aging Neurodegeneration ROS Oxidative stress Epigenetic modifications Antioxidants 

Notes

Acknowledgments

SS and PS are recipients of Senior Research Fellowship from the University Grants Commissions and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India. MSB is a recipient of Junior Research Fellowship from the Department of Biotechnology, India. This work was supported by grants from the Department of Science and Technology, India (DST-P-07-447); Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India (CSIR-P-25/312); UGC-UPE Focus Area II; UGC-CAS Phase V; and Department of Zoology to MKT.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sweta Srivas
    • 1
  • Meghraj Singh Baghel
    • 1
  • Padmanabh Singh
    • 1
  • Mahendra K. Thakur
    • 1
  1. 1.Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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