Advertisement

Outreaching to Overseas Chinese Communities

  • Minglang ZhouEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter scrutinizes the PRC’s cultural and linguistic outreach, as an essential dimension of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, to greater China and ethnic Chinese communities overseas. In greater China, the PRC’s outreach runs into barriers in the construction of a unified linguistic identity and is challenged for its cultural and linguistic authenticity in representing China. Globally, the PRC’s outreach involves questions of where ethnic Chinese communities’ loyalty lies and whom they identify with. Past outreaches, in the name of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, by the ROC and the PRC, respectively, victimized Chinese communities in Southeast Asia twice in the twentieth century. It is concerned that the PRC’s current outreach may lead to potential political damages to ethnic Chinese overseas in the twentieth century.

References

  1. Apple, R., & Verhoeven, L. (2008). Decolonization, language planning and education. In J. Arends, P. Muysken, & N. Smith (Eds.), Pidgins and creoles: An introduction (pp. 65–74). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  2. Babou, C. A. (2010). Decolonization or national liberation: Debating the end of British colonial rule in Africa. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 632, 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baum, R. (1999). Britain’s ‘betrayal’ of Hong Kong: A second look. Journal of Contemporary China, 8(20), 9–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boer, R. (2015). Confucius and Chairman Mao: Towards a study of religion and Chinese Marxism. Crisis and Critique, 2(1), 37–55.Google Scholar
  5. Bray, M., & Koo, R. (2004). Postcolonial patterns and paradoxes: Language and education in Hong Kong and Macao. Comparative Education, 40(2), 215–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bray, M., & Koo, R. (2005). Language and education. In M. Bray & R. Koo (Eds.), Education and society in Hong Kong and Macao: Comparative perspectives on continuity and change (pp. 141–158). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bush, R. C. (2014). Hong Kong: Examining the impact of the “umbrella movement”. Retrieve from https://www.brookings.edu/testimonies/hong-kong-examining-the-impact-of-the-umbrella-movement/.
  8. Chan, M. K. (1996). Democracy derailed: Realpolitik in the making of the Hong Kong Basic Law, 1985–1990. In M. K. Chan & G. A. Postiglione (Eds.), Hong Kong reader: Passage to Chinese sovereignty (pp. 8–40). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  9. Chantavanich, S. (1997). From Siamese-Chinese to Chinese-Thai: Political conditions and identity shifts among the Chinese in Thailand. In L. Suryadinata (Ed.), Ethnic Chinese as Southeast Asians (pp. 232–259). New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, P. (1999). Modern Chinese: History and sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  11. Chen, H. (2018). A review of studies of China’s public diplomacy in Chinese overseas communities [Zhongguo qiaowu gonggong waijiao yanjiu shuping]. Journal of Guangzhou Institute of Socialism, 2, 59–66.Google Scholar
  12. Chen, P. Y. (2015). Functions of public diplomacy in overseas Chinese affairs in overseas Chinese education. Southeast Asian Studies [Dongnan Ya Yanjiu], 6, 79–85.Google Scholar
  13. Chen, S. M., & Zhang, S. Q. (2011). On the compilation of cross-strait Chinese dictionaries [Shilun haixia liangan yuwen cidian pianzuan]. Ludong University Journal (Philosophy and Social Science Edition), 28(3), 29–32.Google Scholar
  14. Chen, X. B. (2011). History, current status and dilemma of Chinese education for Chinese overseas during the global craze for Chinese [Huawen jiaoyu de lishi, xianzhuang ji zai shijie hanyure Beijing xia de jingyu]. In J. Qiu, M. H. Li, & K. R. Luo (Eds.), Annual report on overseas Chinese studies [Huaqiao huaren yanjiu baogao] (pp. 304–325). Beijing: Shehui Kexue Wenxian Press.Google Scholar
  15. Chen, Y. N. (2015). Malaysian Communist Party’s radio broadcasting station in China [She zai zhongguo de magong diantai]. Journal of Chinese History [Yanhuang Chunqiu], 8, 44–46.Google Scholar
  16. Chen, Y. P., & Fan, R. S. (2010). Chinese overseas and China’s soft power: Roles, mechanism and policy recommendations. Overseas Chinese History Studies [Huaqia Huaren Lishi Yanjiu], 2, 14–21.Google Scholar
  17. China. (1996). Guojia yuyan wenzi zhengce fagui huibian (1949–1995) [Collection of national language and script policies and decrees, 1949–1995]. Beijing: Yuwen Press.Google Scholar
  18. China. (2004). The tenth five-year plan for state language and script work [Guojia yuyan wenzi gongzuo “shiwu” guihua]. Retrieved from http://yywz.szedu.com/szlanguage/showinfo/showinfo.aspx?infoid=b62ac1e2-1068-49cd-89de-1a7bf2da7562&siteid=1&categoryNum=0201.
  19. China. (2007). The eleventh five-year plan for state language and script work [Guojia yuyan wenzi gongzuo “shiyiwu” guihua]. Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.cn/srcsite/A18/s7066/200704/t20070412_78577.html.
  20. China. (2016). The outline of the national medium-to-long-term language and script work reform and development plan (2012–2020) [Guojia zhongchangqi yuyan wenzi gaige he fazhan guihua gangyao (2012–2020)]. Retrieved from http://www.china-language.gov.cn/jg/wx/201612/t20161216_4969.html.
  21. China News. (2009). Ma Yingjiu looked down up the Mainland in his proposal on “reading in the traditional script and writing in the simplified one” [Ma Yingjiu ti hanzi “shizheng shujian” xiaokan le dalu]. Retrieved from http://www.chinanews.com/hb/news/2009/06-19/1741154.shtml.
  22. Choi, A. H. (2011). Intergovernmental relationship between Mainland China and the Macao SAR. In E. M. Berman (Ed.), Public administration in Southeast Asia: Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Macao (pp. 475–500). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  23. Collins, M. (2017). Nation, state and agency: Evolving historiographies of African decolonization. In A. W. M. Smith & C. Jeppesen (Eds.), Britain, France and the decolonization of Africa (pp. 17–42). London: UCL Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. CSAUS. (2018). About CSAUS. Retrieved from http://csaus.org/FHFRONT/csaus/about.jsp.
  25. Evans, S. (2009). The medium of instruction in Hong Kong revisited: Policy and practice in the reformed Chinese and English stream. Research Papers in Education, 24(3), 287–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goh, Y.-S. (2013). Hard truth about Chinese language policy and planning in Singapore. Retrieved from https://repository.nie.edu.sg/bitstream/10497/15481/1/AEC-2013-GohYS_a.pdf.
  27. Gregor, A. J. (1981). Confucianism and the political thought of Sun Yat-Sen. Philosophy East and West, 31(1), 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guan, Z. G. (2001). Issues regarding Taiwan’s Chinese Cultural Renaissance Movement [Guanyu Taiwan zhonghua wenhua fuxing yundong de jige wenti]. Taiwan Research Quaterly, 2, 37–46.Google Scholar
  29. Guo, X. (2004). Some questions concerning the teaching of Chinese in overseas Chinese communities with the status in Singapore as an example. Journal of Chinese Teaching in the World [Shijie Hanyu Jiaoxue], 69, 79–88.Google Scholar
  30. He, A. W. Y., & Xiao, Y. (Eds.). (2008). Chinese as a heritage language: Fostering rooted world citizenry. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  31. He, L. B., & Zhang, Z. (2009). Mao Zedong during the May-Fourth Movement: From a young patriotist to a Marxist [Mao Zedong zai wusi yundong qianhou: cong aiguo qingnian dao makesi zhuyi zhe]. Retrieved from http://dangshi.people.com.cn/GB/85038/9260138.html.
  32. Heaton, W. (1982). China and Southeast Asian communist movements: The decline of dual track diplomacy. Asian Survey, 22(8), 779–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hobova, Y. (2016). Chinese in Hong Kong: Cultural and linguistic background of two identities. International Communication of Chinese Culture, 3(2), 325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hong Kong. (1997). The basic law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the PRC. Retrieved from http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/index.html.
  35. Hong Kong. (2012). Drafting and promulgation of the Basic Law and Hong Kong’s reunification with the motherland. Retrieved from http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/publications/book/15anniversary_reunification_ch1_3.pdf.
  36. Hong Kong. (2017). 2016 population by-census. Retrieved from https://www.bycensus2016.gov.hk/en/bc-mt.html.
  37. Hong Kong Free Press. (2018, May 2). Cantonese a dialect, not a mother tongue. Retrieved from https://www.hongkongfp.com/2018/05/02/cantonese-dialect-not-mother-tongue-says-hong-kong-education-bureau-supporting-material-mandarin/.
  38. Hopkins, A. G. (2008). Rethinking decolonization. Past & Present, 200, 211–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jin, Z. K., & Zang, H. Y. (2015). Analysis of contemporary China’s public diplomacy through the Chinese overseas [Dongdai zhongguo qiaowu gonggong waijiao tanxi]. Retrieved from http://www.faobserver.com/NewsInfo.aspx?id=7772.
  40. Kan, V., & Adamson, B. (2010). Language policies for Hong Kong schools since 1997. London Review of Education, 8(2), 167–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Khanh, T. (1997). Ethnic Chinese in Vietnam and their identity. In L. Suryadinata (Ed.), Ethnic Chinese as Southeast Asians (pp. 267–292). New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  42. Kiernan, B. (2002). The Pol Pot regime: Race, power, and genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–79 (2nd ed.). New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Kloss, H. (1998). The American bilingual tradition (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics.Google Scholar
  44. Kubler, C. C. (1985). The influence of Southern Min on the Mandarin of Taiwan. Anthropological Linguistics, 27(2), 156–176.Google Scholar
  45. LaFraniere, S. (2010). Fighting trend, China is luring scientist home. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/07/world/asia/07scholar.html.
  46. Lai, M. L. (2010). Social class and language attitudes in Hong Kong. International Multilingual Research Journal, 4, 83–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Li, L. (2016). Chinese overseas and China’s policy for Southeast Asian countries [Huaqiao huaren yu zhongguo dongnan ya zhengce]. Southern Theoretical Journal [Nanfang Lunkan], 7, 18–20.Google Scholar
  48. Li, R. Z. (2013). The inheritance and development of Chinese culture in Taiwan [Zhonghua wenhua zai Taiwan de chuancheng he fazhan]. Journal of the Central Institute of Socialism, 3, 26–29.Google Scholar
  49. Li, W. (1994). Three generations, two languages, one family: Language shift in a Chinese community in Britain. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  50. Li, W., & Zhu, H. (2010). Voices for the diaspora: Changing hierarchies and dynamics of Chinese multilingualism. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 205, 155–171.Google Scholar
  51. Li, W., & Zhu, H. (2011). Changing hierarchies in Chinese language education for the British Chinese learners. In L. Tsung & K. Cruickshan (Eds.), Teaching and learning Chinese in global contexts (pp. 11–27). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  52. Li, X. J. (2013a). Unify the language and script in the Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macao in order to promote the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and prosperity of China [Zhenghe liangan sidi yuwen, zhuli minzu fuxing he guojia xingsheng]. Journal of Wuling, 38(1), 120–123.Google Scholar
  53. Li, X. J. (2013b). Study language use in the Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao in order to promote stability and prosperity in Hong Kong and Macao and peaceful unification with Taiwan [Diaocha yanjiu liangan sidi yuwen, cujing gangao fanrong wending, liangan heping tongyi]. Applied Linguistics [Yuyan wenzi yingyong], 1, 15–17.Google Scholar
  54. Li, X. J., & Qiu, Z. Q. (2017). The performance of “cultural independence of Taiwan” in aspect of language issues and our countermeasures. Taiwan Research [Taiwan Yanjiu], 1, 13–20.Google Scholar
  55. Lui, H.-K. (2007). The returns to language ability in Hong Kong: Before and after the handover. Applied Economic Letters, 14, 121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liu, H., & van Dongen, E. (2017). The Chinese diaspora. Oxford Bibliographies:  https://doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199920082-0070.
  57. Liu, X. (2013). On the evolution of China’s policy toward overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia, 1949–1960. Studies of the CCP History [Zhonggong Dangshi Yanjiu], 6, 38–48.Google Scholar
  58. Lo Bianco, J. (2007). Emergent China and Chinese: Language planning categories. Language Policy, 6(1), 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Loh, P. P. Y. (1970). The ideological persuasion of Chiang Kai-Shek. Modern Asian Studies, 4(3), 211–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Macao. (1998). Basic Law. Retrieved from https://www.umac.mo/basiclaw/english/ch1.html.
  61. Macao. (2002). Global results of census 2001. Macao: DSEC.Google Scholar
  62. Macao. (2008a). Macao SAR’s language education policy for non-higher education [Aomen tebie xingzheng qu fei gaodeng jiaoyu fanchou yuwen jiaoyu zhengce]. Retrieved from https://www.dsej.gov.mo/~webdsej/www/grp_db/policy/lang_policy_c.pdf?timeis=Wed%20Sep%2012%2020:39:05%20GMT+08:00%202018&&.
  63. Macao. (2008b). Global results of by-census 2006. Macao: DSEC.Google Scholar
  64. Macao. (2012). Results of 2011 population census. Retrieved from https://www.dsec.gov.mo/getAttachment/7a3b17c2-22cc-4197-9bd5-ccc6eec388a2/E_CEN_PUB_2011_Y.aspx.
  65. Macao. (2017). 2016 population by-census: Detailed results. Macao: DSEC.Google Scholar
  66. Macao Libao. (2017, August 6). Percentage of Putonghua medium for Chinese classes rises and Education & Youth Department gradually trains teachers in Putonghua [Pu jiao zhong bili tigao, Jiaoqingju zhubu peishun shizi]. Retrieved from http://www.exmoo.com/article/34422.html.
  67. Mann, C., & Wong, G. (1999). Issues in language planning and language education: Survey from Macao on its return to Chinese sovereignty. Language Problems and Language Planning, 23(1), 17–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mao, T. T. (1927). Report on an investigation of the peasant movement in Hunan. Retrieved from https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-1/mswv1_2.htm.
  69. Mathews, G., Ma, E. K.-W., & Lui, T.-L. (2008). Hong Kong, China: Learning to belong to a nation. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Miao, R. Q., & Li, J. X. (2006). Urban migration and functional bilingualism in Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 16(2), 237–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Norton, B. (2000). Identity and language learning: Gender, ethnicity and education change. Essex: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  72. Pierson, H. D. (1998). Societal accommodation to English and Putonghua in Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong. In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Language in Hong Kong at century’s end (pp. 91–111). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Postiglione, G. A. (1996). The decolonization of Hong Kong education. In M. K. Chan & G. A. Postiglione (Eds.), Hong Kong reader: Passage to Chinese sovereignty (pp. 98–123). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  74. Ren, G. X. (2013). On Jiang Zemin’s thought on the Chinese overseas [Jiang Zemin qiaowu sixiang shuping]. Retrieved from https://www.wxyjs.org.cn/dhgjzyldryj_558/201303/t20130304_138634.htm.
  75. Saillard, C. (2004). On the promotion of Putonghua in China: How a standard language becomes a vernacular. In M. Zhou & H. K. Sun (Eds.), Language policy in the People’s Republic of China: Theory and practice since 1949 (pp. 163–176). Boston, MA: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Saillard, C. (2011, April 14–16). The rise of standard Chinese in France and its use by Chinese immigrants. Paper presented the International Symposium on China’s One Hundred Years of Language Planning, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA.Google Scholar
  77. Semple, K. (2009). In Chinatown, sound of the future is Mandarin. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/22/nyregion/22chinese.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
  78. Shan, W. J., & Ieong, S. L. (2008). Post-colonial reflections on education development in Macau. Comparative Education Bulletin, 11, 36–67.Google Scholar
  79. Sina. (2009). Cross-strait collaboration on the compilation of the Chinese Language Dictionary and its publication expected in three years [Haixia liangan hebian “zhonghua da cidian” yuji sannian chengshu]. Retrieved from http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2009-11-11/094416589981s.shtml.
  80. Snow, D. (2004). Cantonese as written language: The growth of a written Chinese vernacular. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Song, X. Q. (2013). On the nature of Putonghua education in Hong Kong and its development [Qianlun Xianggang Putonghua jiaoyu de xingzhi yu fazhan]. Retrieved from https://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/tc/curriculum-development/kla/chi-edu/resources/primary/pth/jisi4_24.pdf.
  82. Straits Times. (2018). Students protest in Hong Kong over compulsory Mandarin tests. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/students-protest-in-hong-kong-over-compulsory-mandarin-tests.
  83. Su, X. C., & Guo, G. M. (2018). The trend and characteristics of Chinese language policies in the Mainland and Taiwan since the mid-twentieth century. Applied Linguistics [Yuyan wenzi yingyong], 3, 3–10.Google Scholar
  84. Tain, X. L. (2008). The policies for Chinese education in Hong Kong. Journal of Yunnan Normal University (CFL Teaching and Research Edition), 6(2), 17–24.Google Scholar
  85. Tang, J. T. H., & Ching, F. (1996). Balancing the Beijing-London-Hong Kong “three-legged stool”, 1971–1986. In M. K. Chan & G. A. Postiglione (Eds.), Hong Kong reader: Passage to Chinese sovereignty (pp. 41–64). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  86. Tsui, A. B. M. (2003). Medium of instruction in Hong Kong: One country, two systems, whose language? In J. W. Tollefson & A. B. M. Tsui (Eds.), Medium of instruction policy: Which agenda? Whose agenda? (pp. 97–116). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  87. Vogel, E. F. (1996). Foreword. In M. K. Chan & G. A. Postiglione (Eds.), Hong Kong reader: Passage to Chinese sovereignty (pp. vii–viii). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  88. Wang, H. W. (2016, November 5–6). Five basic concepts for Chinese as a heritage language proficiency test [Dui huaren huaqiao zuyu ceshi de wuge jiben linian]. Paper presented at Expert Consultancy Conference for Chinese as a Heritage Language Proficiency Test for Overseas Youth, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.Google Scholar
  89. Wang, H. X. (2011). China’s new talent strategy: Impact on China’s development and its global exchanges. SAI Review of International Affairs, 31(2), 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wang, X. M. (2011, August 23–29). Can a language spread from bottom upwards? A study on the spread of standard Chinese in Johor, Malaysia. Paper presented at the 16th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  91. Wang, X. M. (2017). Family language policy by Hakkas in Balik Pulau, Penang. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 244, 87–108.Google Scholar
  92. Wiley, T. G. (2005). The reemergence of heritage and community language policy in the U.S. national spotlight. The Modern Language Journal, 89(4), 594–601.Google Scholar
  93. Wiley, T. G., de Klerk, G., Li, M. Y., Liu, N., Teng, Y., & Yang, P. (2008). Attitudes toward Mandarin, heritage languages, and dialect diversity among Chinese immigrants and international students in the United States. In A. W. Y. He & Y. Xiao (Eds.), Chinese as a heritage language: Fostering rooted world citizenry (pp. 67–88). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  94. Wongsurawat, W. (2011). Thailand and the Xinhai Revolution: Expectations, reality and inspiration. In L. T. Lee & H. G. Lee (Eds.), Sun Yat-Sen: Nanyang and the 1911 revolution (pp. 130–147). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Woody, A. (2008). Macau English: Status, functions and forms. English Today 95, 24(3), 3–15.Google Scholar
  96. Worrachaiyut, S. (2012). On language policy and Chinese education policy in Thailand. Overseas Chinese Education [Haiwai Huawen Jiaoyu], 1, 105–110.Google Scholar
  97. Wright, S. (2004). Language policy and language planning: from nationalism to globalization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  98. Wu, M. H. (2011). Language planning and policy in Taiwan: Past, present, and future. Language Problems & Language Planning, 35(1), 15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Xi, J. P. (2010). The opening of Chinese root tracing journey summer camp and Xi Jinping’s speech at the opening [Zhongguo xungen zhi lü xialingying kaiying Xi Jinping chuxi bing jianghua]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/ldhd/2010-07/25/content_1663626.htm.
  100. Xinhua. (2017). Xi Jinping’s and Li Keqiang’s instructions on the work on the Chinese overseas [Xi Jinping dui qiaowu gongzuo zuochu zhongyao zhishi, Li Keqiang zuochu pishi]. Retrieved from http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2017-02/17/c_1120486778.htm.
  101. Xu, Q. (2009). Why did Ma Yingjiu propose to read in the traditional characters and write in the simplified ones [Ma Yingjiu weihe tichu “shizheng shujian”]. World Affairs [Shijie zhishi], 16, 46–47.Google Scholar
  102. Yan, X. (2017). A study of Macao tertiary students’ language attitudes after the handover. Language Awareness, 26(1), 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yang, L. X. (2016). Reflections on cross-strait collaboration on the renaissance of the Chinese culture [Liangan xieshou hezuo fuxing zhonghua wenhua de sikao]. Modern Taiwan Studies [Xiandai Taiwan yanjiu], 1, 37–42.Google Scholar
  104. Yang, Q. G. (1992). Indigenous Indonesians’ perceptions of ethnic Chinese in Indonesia before the Second World War [Erzhan qian yinni yuanzhumin zhi yinni huaren guang]. Southeast Asian Studies [Dongnan Ya Yanjiu], 1, 50–54.Google Scholar
  105. Young, M. Y. C. (2009). Multilingual education in Macao. International Journal of Multilingualism, 6(4), 412–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Youth Collaborative for Chinatown. (2018). Saturday School. Retrieved from http://ycc-yvr.com/saturday-school/.
  107. Zhang, B. (2014). The continuity and development of Deng Xiaoping’s “unique opportunity” strategy for China’s overseas Chinese work in the new era [Deng Xiaoping “dute jiyu lun” zai xin shiqi zhongguo qiaowu fazhan zhanlue zhong de jicheng yu fayang]. Retrieved from http://qwgzyj.gqb.gov.cn/yjytt/177/2449.shtml.
  108. Zhang, G. X., & Li, L. M. (2010). Chinese language teaching in the UK: Present and future. The Language Learning Journal, 38(1), 87–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhang, S. P., & Li, X. J. (2014). Language planning for peaceful reunification. Applied Linguistics [Yuyan Wenzi Yingyong], 1, 2–9.Google Scholar
  110. Zhang, X. Q. (2016). A study of the resinicization of ethnic Chinese in Indonesia since the turn of the 21st century [Ershiyi shiji yilai yinne huaren zai huahua xianxiang yanjiu]. World Ethnic Studies [Shijie minzu], 1, 82–91.Google Scholar
  111. Zhao, K. J., & Liu, S. R. (2013). Rise of China’s diaspora public diplomacy. Northeast Asia Forum [Dongbei Ya Luntan], 5, 13–23.Google Scholar
  112. Zhou, M. (2001). The spread of Putonghua and language attitude changes in Shanghai and Guangzhou, China. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 11(2), 231–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zhou, M. (Ed.). (2006a). Special issue on language planning and varieties of Modern Standard Chinese. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 16(2).Google Scholar
  114. Zhou, M. (2006b). Theorizing language contact, spread, and variation in status planning: A case study of Modern Standard Chinese. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 16(2), 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhou, M. (2010). China: The Mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. In J. A. Fishman & O. García (Eds.), Handbook of language and ethnic identity: Disciplinary and regional perspectives (pp. 470–485). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Zhou, M. (2011a). Globalization and language order: Teaching Chinese as a foreign language in the United States. In L. Tsung & K. Cruickshank (Eds.), Teaching and learning Chinese in global contexts (pp. 131–150). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  117. Zhou, M. (2011b, August 23–28). A global Putonghua? Globalization of Chinese and the PRC’s global promotion of Chinese. Paper presented at the 16th World Congress on Applied Linguistics, Beijing.Google Scholar
  118. Zhou, M. (2012a). Historical review of the PRC’s minority/indigenous language police and practice: Nation-state building and identity construction. In G. H. Beckett & G. A. Postiglione (Eds.), China’s assimilationist language policy: The impact on indigenous/minority literacy and social harmony (pp. 18–30). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  119. Zhou, M. (2012b). Introduction: The contact between Putonghua (Modern Standard Chinese) and minority languages in China. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 215, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhou, M. (Ed.). (2012c). Special issue on the contact between Putonghua and minority languages in China. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 215.Google Scholar
  121. Zhou, M. (2012d). Language identity as a process and second language learning. In W. M. Chan, K. N. Chin, S. K. Bhatt, & I. Walker (Eds.), Perspectives on individual characteristics and foreign language education (pp. 255–272). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
  122. Zhou, M. (2014). Language identity and teaching Chinese as a heritage language. Teaching and Research on Chinese as a Heritage Language [Huawen Jiaoxue yu Yanjiu], 1, 15–20.Google Scholar
  123. Zhou, M. (2017a). Language ideology and language order: Conflicts and compromises in colonial and postcolonial Asia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 243, 97–118.Google Scholar
  124. Zhou, M. (2017b). Language policy and education in Greater China. In T. McCarty & S. May (Eds.), Language policy and political issues in education: Encyclopedia of Language Education (3rd ed., pp. 1–14). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhou, M. (2017c). A standard Global Chinese? Chinese Journal of Language Policy and Planning, 2(1), 18–24.Google Scholar
  126. Zhou, H. M., & Shi, Z. F. (2011). Review and prospects of education for indigenous communities in Taiwan [Wo guo yuanzhu minzu jiaoyu zhi huigu yu zhanwan]. In Taiwan (Ed.), Review and prospects of 100 years of education in the ROC [Wo guo bainian jiaoyu zhi huigu yu zhanwan] (pp. 237–252). Taipei, National Academy of Educational Research.Google Scholar
  127. Zhou, M., & Wang, X. M. (2017). Introduction: Understanding language management and multilingualism in Malaysia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 244, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zhuang, G. T. (2010). The distribution and development of the population of Chinese overseas [Huaqiao huaren fenbu zhuangkuang he fazhan qushi]. Retrieved from http://qwgzyj.gqb.gov.cn/yjytt/155/1830.shtml.
  129. Zweig, D., & Wang, H. X. (2013). Can China bring back the best? The Communist Party organizes China’s search for talent. The China Quarterly, 215, 590–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Maryland College ParkCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations