Owing to its technical development, tailored management for renal stones has become available to reduce mortality rates and increase surgical outcomes. In the era of flexible ureteroscopic surgery and miniaturized nephroscopy, urologists have embraced expanded minimally invasive options for managing and collecting symptomatic renal stones. The renal and ureteral surgery can be classified into three categories of retrograde, antegrade, and bidirectional approaches to target lesions. In cases that are expected to be difficult with the percutaneous or retrograde approach, a bidirectional approach can be considered according to the status of the targeted lesions.
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