Advertisement

Theories and Methodology

  • Sophia MaalsenEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to provide the theoretical and methodological background required for constructing a framework that accommodates the multibiographical sensibilities of sounds and their social lives. Part 1 outlines practices of materialising sound and the making of both property and personhood through this. Part 2 introduces the reader to the mixed-methodological toolbox that helps us to understand the social life of things.

Importantly, this methodology is suited to overcoming object/subject dualisms and therefore enables us to observe and ask questions regarding both the sound objects and people, in terms of how each influences the other’s biographical pathways. Consequently, we are given insight into how the self is produced with and through things, and how personhood is co-constituted by objects, and that such self-definitional processes work in similar ways for things. The social life of sound is about the biographies of people and music, and as such produces a sound which is not singular and isolated but multibiographical.

References

  1. Anderson, B. (2004). Recorded music and practices of remembering. Social and Cultural Geography, 5(1), 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appadurai, A. (1986). The social life of things: Commodities in cultural perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appadurai, A. (1994). Commodities and the politics of value. In S. M. Pearce (Ed.), Interpreting objects and collections (pp. 76–91). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Arewa, O. B. (2007). The freedom to copy: Copyright, creation and context. U.C. Davis Law Review, 41(2), 477–558.Google Scholar
  5. Arnold, P. (2012, March 12). Chuck D explains why suing the Notorious B.I.G. was “stupid” and why Jay-Z and Kanye West’s bases are “corrupt to rap”. Hiphop DX. Retrieved August 7, 2012, from, http://www.hiphopdx.com/index/news/id.18962/title.chuck-d-explains-why-suing-the-notorious-big-was-stupid-and-why-jay-z-and-kanye-wests-bases-are-corrupt-to-rap.
  6. Australian Copyright Council. (2012). Music and copyright. In Information Sheet GO12v13, February 2012, Australian Copyright Council, Strawberry Hills, NSW.Google Scholar
  7. Australian Law Reform Commission. (2012). Copyright and the digital economy, Issues Paper 42. Issues Paper, ALRC, Sydney.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, S. (2000). The postmodern animal. London: Reaktion.Google Scholar
  9. Barron, A. (1998). No other law? authority, property and aboriginal art. In L. Bentley & S. Mariatis (Eds.), Intellectual property and ethics. London: Sweet and Maxwell.Google Scholar
  10. Belk, R. W. (1995). Collecting in a consumer society. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Benjamin, W ([1936] 2009), The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction, in One way street and other writings, Penguin, London, pp. 228-259.Google Scholar
  12. Bennett, A. (2002). Reviews: Clubbing, dancing, ecstasy and vitality. Popular Music, 21(3), 375–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blanning, L. (2009). The crate mass experiment. The Wire, 309, 33–38.Google Scholar
  14. Born, G. (1995). Rationalizing culture: IRCAM, Boulez, and the institutionalization of the musical avant-garde. Berkley: California University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Born, G. (2011). Music and the materialization of identities. Journal of Material Culture, 16(4), 376–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  17. Camilleri, L. (2010). Shaping sounds, shaping spaces. Popular Music, 29(2), 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christophers, B. (2011). Follow the thing: Money. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 29, 1068–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen, S. (1993). Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music, 12, 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Colloredo-Mansfeld, R. (1995). Consumption. In J. G. Carrier (Ed.), A handbook of economic anthropology (pp. 210–225). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  21. Cook, I. (2004). Follow the thing: Papaya. Antipode, 36(4), 642–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cook, I., & Harrison, M. (2007). Follow the thing: “West Indian Hot Pepper Sauce”. Space and Culture, 10(1), 40–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Corradi Fiumara, G. (1990). The other side of language: A philosophy of listening. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Davis, D. (1995). The work of art in the age of digital reproduction. Leonardo, 28(5), 381–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1987). A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  26. DeNora, T. (2000). Music in everyday life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DeNora, T., & Belcher, S. (2000). “When you’re trying something on you picture yourself in a place where they are playing this kind of music”—Musically sponsored agency in the British clothing retail sector. The Sociological Review, 48(1), 80–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Drever, J. L. (2002). Soundscape composition: The convergence of ethnography and acousmatic music. Organised Sound, 7(1), 21–27.Google Scholar
  29. Feld, S. (1982). Sound and sentiment: Birds, weeping, poetics, and song in Kaluli expression (Publications of the American Folklore Society. New Series). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  30. Feld, S. (1988). Notes on world beat. Public Culture Bulletin, 1(1), 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Feld, S. (1996a). Pygmy POP. A genealogy of Schizophonic Mimesis. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 28, 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Feld, S. (1996b). Waterfalls of song: An acoustemology of place resounding in Bosavi, Papua New Guinea. In S. Feld & K. Basso (Eds.), Senses of place. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  33. Feld, S. (2000). A sweet lullaby for world music. Public Culture Bulletin, 12(1), 145–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Feld, S., & Brenneis, D. (2004). Doing anthropology in sound. American Ethnologist, 31(4), 461–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Franklin, M. I. (2002). Reading Walter Benjamin and Donna Haraway in the age of digital reproduction. Information, Communication & Society, 5(4), 591–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Frith, S. (1982). British popular music research. IASPM UK Working Paper, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  37. Garoian, C. R., & Gaudelius, Y. M. (2001). Cyborg pedagogy: Performing resistance in the digital age. Studies in Art Education, 42(4), 333–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gell, A. (1998). Art and agency: An anthropological theory. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  39. Gosden, C. (2004). The past and foreign countries: Colonial and post-colonial archaeology and anthropology. In L. Meskell & R. Preucel (Eds.), A companion to social archaeology (pp. 161–178). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  40. Greene, K. J. (1999). Copyright, culture and black music: A legacy of unequal protection. Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal, 21, 339–391.Google Scholar
  41. Haraway, D. (1988). Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist Studies, 14(3), 575–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Haraway, D. (1991). Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinvention of nature. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Haraway, D. J. (2008). When species meet (Posthumanities). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  44. Haring, B. (2000). Beyond the charts: MP3 and the digital music revolution. Los Angeles: JM Northern Media LLC.Google Scholar
  45. Harvey, D. (1990). Between space and time: Reflections on the geographical imagination. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 80(3), 418–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hegel, G. (1977). Phenomenology of spirit. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Herrmann, G. M. (1997). Gift or commodity: What changes hands in the U. S. garage sale? American Ethnologist, 24(4), 910–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hesmondhalgh, D. (2006). Digital sampling and cultural inequality. Social and Legal Studies, 15(1), 53–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hirsch, E. (2004). Boundaries of creation: The work of credibility in science and ceremony. In E. Hirsch & M. Strathern (Eds.), Transactions and creations: Property debates and the stimulus of Melanesia. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  50. Hodder, I. (1989). This is not an article about material culture as text. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 8(3), 250–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Holtorf, C. (2002). Notes on the life history of a Pot Sherd. Journal of Material Culture, 7(1), 49–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jackson, P. (1999). Commodity cultures: The traffic in things. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 24(1), 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jensen, S. Q. (2006). Rethinking subcultural capital. Young: Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 14(3), 257–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jordan, K. (2008). Stop. Hey. What’s that sound? In P. D. Miller (Ed.), Sound unbound (pp. 245–264). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  55. Kirby, M. (2011). Forward. In B. Fitzgerald & B. Atkinson (Eds.), Copyright future copyright freedom: Marking the 40th anniversary of the commencement of Australia’s Copyright Act 1968. Sydney: Sydney University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Knappett, C. (2006). Beyond skin: Layering and networking in art and archaeology. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 16(2), 239–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kopytoff, I. (1986). The cultural biography of things: Commoditization as process. In A. Appadurai (Ed.), The social life of things: Commodities in cultural perspective (pp. 64–91). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lamont, M., & Lareau, A. (1988). Cultural capital: Allusions, gaps and glissandos in recent theoretical developments. Sociological Theory, 6(2), 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lash, S., & Lury, C. (2007). Global culture industry: The mediation of things. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  60. Latour, B. (1987). Science in action. How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Lawlor, L. (2008). Following the rats: Becoming-animal in Deleuze and Guattari. SubStance, 37(3), 169–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lysloff, R. (1997). Mozart in mirrorshades: Ethnomusicology, technology, and the politics of representation. Ethnomusicology, 41(2), 206–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Maalsen, S. (2016). Reissuing alternative musical heritages: The materiality of the niche reissued record and challenging what music matters. Popular Music and Society, 39(5), 516–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Maalsen, S., & Mclean, J. (2018). Record collections as musical archives: Gender, record collecting, and whose music is heard. Journal of Material Culture, 23(1), 39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Malbon, B. (1999). Clubbing: Dancing, ecstasy and vitality. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. McLeod, K. (2001). Owning culture: Authorship, ownership and intellectual property law. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  67. Miller, D. (1987). Material culture and consumption. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  68. Miller, D. (Ed.). (1995). Acknowledging consumption: A review of new studies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  69. Miller, D. (Ed.). (1998). Material cultures: Why some things matter. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Moist, K. (2008). “To renew the old world”: Record collecting as cultural production. Studies in Popular Culture, 31(1), 99–122.Google Scholar
  71. Morton, F. (2005). Performing ethnography: Irish traditional music sessions and new methodological spaces. Social & Cultural Geography, 6(5), 661–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Narotzky, S. (2005). Provisioning. In J. G. Carrier (Ed.), A handbook of economic anthropology (pp. 78–93). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  73. Oswald, J. (1985). Plunderphonics, or audio piracy as a compositional prerogative. Paper presented to Wired Society Electro-Acoustic Conference, Toronto.Google Scholar
  74. Oswald, J. (1986). Plunderphonics, or audio piracy as a compositional prerogative. Musicworks, Vol. 34.Google Scholar
  75. Oswald, J. (1992). Plunderphonics. In R. James (Ed.), Cassette mythos. Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia.Google Scholar
  76. Patke, R. S. (2005). Benjamin on art and reproducibility: The case of music. In A. Benjamin (Ed.), Walter Benjamin and art (pp. 185–208). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  77. Pink, S. (2009). Doing sensory ethnography. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pottage, A. (2004). Introduction: The fabrication of persons and things. In M. Mundy & A. Pottage (Eds.), Law, anthropology, and the constitution of the social (pp. 1–39). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Prior, N. (2009). Software sequencers and cyborg singers: Popular music in the digital hypermodern. New Formations, 66(Spring), 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Radin, M. J. (1982). Property and personhood. Stanford Law Review, 34(5), 957–1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Radin, M. J. (1996). Property evolving in cyberspace. Journal of Law and Commerce, 15(2), 509–526.Google Scholar
  82. Sanjek, D. (2003). Reviews the book “Strange Sounds: Music, Technology & Culture,” by Timothy D. Taylor. Journal of American History, 90(3), 1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schafer, M. (1969). The new soundscape. Don Mills, ON: BMI Canada.Google Scholar
  84. Schiffer, M. (1972). Archaeological context and systemic context. American Antiquity, 37, 156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schloss, J. (2004). Making beats: The art of sample based hip-hop. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Seeger, A. (1992). Ethnomusicology and music law. Ethnomusicology, 36(3), 345–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Seeger, A. (2004). The selective protection of musical ideas: The “creations” and the dispossessed. In K. Verdery & C. Humphrey (Eds.), Property in question: Value transformation in the global economy (pp. 69–83). Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  88. Self, H. (2002). Digital sampling: A cultural perspective. UCLA Entertainment Law Review, 9, 347–359.Google Scholar
  89. Shanks, M. (2004). Three rooms: Archaeology and performance. Journal of Social Archaeology, 4(2), 147–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shapiro, G. (2003). Archaeologies of vision: Foucault and Nietzsche on seeing and saying. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  91. Smith, B. R. (1999). The acoustic world of early modern England: Attending to the O-factor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  92. Smith, S. (1994). Soundscape. Area, 26(3), 232–240.Google Scholar
  93. Strathern, M. (1988). The gender of the gift. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  94. Strathern, M. (1999). Property, substance and effect: Anthropological essays on persons and things. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  95. Straw, W. (1999). The thingishness of things: Keynote address for the interrogating subcultures conference, University of Rochester, March 27, 1998. Invisible Culture: An Electronic Journal for Visual Studies, no. 2, p. n/a.Google Scholar
  96. Straw, W. (2000). Exhausted commodities: The material culture of music. Canadian Journal of Communication, 25(1), 175–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Straw, W. (2002). Music as commodity and material culture. Repercussions, 7–8(Spring–Fall, 1999–2000, published 2002), 147–172.Google Scholar
  98. Taylor, T. (2001). Strange sounds: Music, technology and culture. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  99. Thomas, Y. (2004). Res Religiosae: On the categories of religion and commerce in Roman law. In M. Mundy & A. Pottage (Eds.), Law, anthropology and the constitution of the social: Making persons and things (pp. 40–72). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thornton, S. (1995). Club cultures: Music, media, and subcultural capital. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Thrift, N. (2005). Beyond mediation: Three new material registers and their consequences. In D. Miller (Ed.), Materiality (pp. 231–255). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tilley, C. (1996). An ethnography of the Neolithic: Early prehistoric societies in southern Scandinavia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Weibel, P. (1998). The unreasonable effectiveness of the methodological convergence of art and science. In C. Sommerer & L. Mignonneau (Eds.), Art@science. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  104. Welsch, W. (1997). Undoing aesthetics. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  105. Whatmore, S. (1995). From farming to agribusiness: The global agro-food system. In R. J. Johnston, P. J. Taylor, & M. J. Watts (Eds.), Geographies of global change (pp. 36–49). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  106. Witmore, C. (2006). Vision, media, noise and the percolation of time: Symmetrical approaches to the mediation of the material world. Journal of Material Culture, 11, 267–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wood, N., Duffy, M., & Smith, S. J. (2007). The art of doing (geographies of) music. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 25(5), 867–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zemp, H. (1996). The/an ethnomusicologist and the record business. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 28, 36–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Architecture, Design and PlanningUniversity of SydneyCamperdownAustralia

Personalised recommendations