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Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

  • Md Kausar Neyaz
  • Saman Ahmad
Chapter

Abstract

Cervical cancer is a worldwide medical problem and is the fourth most common cancer in women with a very disproportionate global distribution. Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered as the main causative agent for the development of cervical cancer. The cytological screening programs involving the Pap test significantly reduce the cervical cancer cases worldwide. Despite this evident success, screening that relies only on Pap test has several limitations. Equivocal or mildly abnormal test results require costly workup by either repeated retesting or direct colposcopy-guided biopsy, since a certain percentage of high-grade lesions that require clinical intervention hide among these unclear test results. HPV DNA testing offers improved sensitivity over cytology testing alone. The accurate genotyping of HPV infection is clinically important as oncogenic potential among the high-risk HPV genotypes varies during the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. There are various potential molecular markers of cervical cancer such as type-specific viral load, HPV DNA integration into the host genome, and methylation of tumor suppressor genes. In more than 90% of cases, HPV infections are cleared spontaneously, and less than 10% eventually progress to high-grade lesions or invasive cancer. Progression is characterized by the deregulated expression of viral oncogenes E6 and E7 in infected basal cells. Putative biomarkers allow monitoring of these essential molecular events in histological or cytological specimens. Such markers are likely to improve the early detection of cervical lesions that have a high risk of progression into invasive cancer.

Keywords

Cervical cancer Human papillomavirus Genotyping Biomarkers Methylation Viral Load HPV E6/E7 mRNA p53 p16 pRb ki67 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md Kausar Neyaz
    • 1
  • Saman Ahmad
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Research and DevelopmentDSS Imagetech Pvt. Ltd.New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Content DepartmentApplect Learning Systems Pvt. Ltd.New DelhiIndia

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