Advertisement

Microalgae: An Eco-friendly Tool for the Treatment of Wastewaters for Environmental Safety

  • Jae-Hoon Hwang
  • Anwar Sadmani
  • Seung-Jin Lee
  • Keug-Tae Kim
  • Woo Hyoung LeeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Algae-based wastewater treatment can provide renewable biomass generation for sustainable bioenergy production while treating wastewater as a growth medium for algae cultivation. In addition, algae are excellent at sorbing and/or degrading inorganic materials (e.g., heavy metals) and emerging contaminants (e.g., endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)), indicating that utilizing an algae-based treatment process is one of emerging strategies for advanced wastewater treatment as an eco-friendly way. Economic advantages and environmental safety associated with algae-based wastewater treatment also constitute a driving force for its utilization in biofuel feedstock generation or fertilizer production. This chapter discusses the principles and rationale for algae-based wastewater treatment coupled with biodegradation of wastewater and renewable energy production. Several biomass technologies for energy production are proposed, which improve the economic feasibility of algal biofuel production. The integration of membrane bioreactors with algae cultivation is also addressed. A new method with separated trophic conditions, enhanced algal nitrification process (EANP), is introduced for practical applications. It seems that pretreatment of raw wastewater and separated culture condition is required to overcome the challenges of scale-up and enhance nitrification rates. Furthermore, synergistic coupling of the microalgae production via advanced wastewater treatment is highlighted in the context of sustainability benefits.

Keyword

Biodegradation Biofuels Biosorption Enhanced algal nitrification process (EANP) Environmental safety Life cycle assessment (LCA) Microalgae Wastewater 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through the University of Central Florida’s NASA Florida Space Grant Consortium and UCF’s Florida Space Institute and Space Florida under grant number NNX15AI10H. This work was also partially supported by NASA (NNX15AN65A) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (No. SU836132).

References

  1. Abdel-Raouf N, Al-Homaidan A, Ibraheem I (2012) Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Saudi J Biol Sci 19:257–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams JM, Gallagher JA, Donnison IS (2009) Fermentation study on Saccharina latissima for bioethanol production considering variable pre-treatments. J Appl Phycol 21:569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adesanya VO, Cadena E, Scott SA, Smith AG (2014) Life cycle assessment on microalgal biodiesel production using a hybrid cultivation system. Bioresour Technol 163:343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adey WH, Kangas PC, Mulbry W (2011) Algal turf scrubbing: cleaning surface waters with solar energy while producing a biofuel. Bioscience 61:434–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akhtar N, Iqbal J, Iqbal M (2004) Enhancement of lead (II) biosorption by microalgal biomass immobilized onto loofa (Luffa cylindrica) sponge. Eng Life Sci 4:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. An JY, Sim SJ, Lee JS, Kim BW (2003) Hydrocarbon production from secondarily treated piggery wastewater by the green alga Botryococcus braunii. J Appl Phycol 15:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Azadi P, Brownbridge G, Mosbach S, Smallbone A, Bhave A, Inderwildi O, Kraft M (2014) The carbon footprint and non-renewable energy demand of algae-derived biodiesel. Appl Energy 113:1632–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartley ML, Boeing WJ, Corcoran AA, Holguin FO, Schaub T (2013) Effects of salinity on growth and lipid accumulation of biofuel microalga Nannochloropsis salina and invading organisms. Biomass Bioenergy 54:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batan L, Quinn J, Willson B, Bradley T (2010) Net energy and greenhouse gas emission evaluation of biodiesel derived from microalgae. Environ Sci Technol 44:7975–7980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bellou S, Baeshen MN, Elazzazy AM, Aggeli D, Sayegh F, Aggelis G (2014) Microalgal lipids biochemistry and biotechnological perspectives. Biotechnol Adv 32:1476–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bharagava RN, Chowdhary P, Saxena G (2017c) Bioremediation: an ecosustainable green technology: its applications and limitations. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bharagava RN, Saxena G, Chowdhary P (2017b) Constructed wetlands: an emerging phytotechnology for degradation and detoxification of industrial wastewaters. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 397–426.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bharagava RN, Saxena G, Mulla SI, Patel DK (2017a) Characterization and identification of recalcitrant organic pollutants (ROPs) in tannery wastewater and its phytotoxicity evaluation for environmental safety. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 75:259.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0490-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Birol F (2007) Energy economics: a place for energy poverty in the agenda? Energy J 28(3):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brentner LB, Eckelman MJ, Zimmerman JB (2011) Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel. Environ Sci Technol 45:7060–7067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brugnera MF, Rajeshwar K, Cardoso JC, Zanoni MVB (2010) Bisphenol A removal from wastewater using self-organized TiO2 nanotubular array electrodes. Chemosphere 78:569–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caldwell D (1946) Sewage oxidation ponds: performance, operation and design. Sewage Works J 18:433–458Google Scholar
  18. Campbell PK, Beer T, Batten D (2011) Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from microalgae in ponds. Bioresour Technol 102:50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Canter CE, Davis R, Urgun-Demirtas M, Frank ED (2012) Infrastructure associated emissions for renewable diesel production from microalgae. Algal Res 1:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chan A, Salsali H, McBean E (2013) Heavy metal removal (copper and zinc) in secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants by microalgae. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2:130–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chandra R, Saxena G, Kumar V (2015) Phytoremediation of environmental pollutants: an eco-sustainable green technology to environmental management. In: Chandra R (ed) Advances in biodegradation and bioremediation of industrial waste, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 1–30.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b18218-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chevalier P, De la Noüe J (1985) Efficiency of immobilized hyperconcentrated algae for ammonium and orthophosphate removal from wastewaters. Biotechnol Lett 7:395–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chiaramonti D, Maniatis K, Tredici MR, Verdelho V, Yan J (2015) Life cycle assessment of algae biofuels: needs and challenges. Appl Energy 154:1049–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chisti Y (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 25:294–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Choi HJ, Lee SM (2012) Effects of microalgae on the removal of nutrients from wastewater: various concentrations of Chlorella vulgaris. Environ Eng Res 17:3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Choi JA, Hwang JH, Dempsey BA, Abou-Shanab RA, Min B, Song H, Lee DS, Kim JR, Cho Y, Hong S, Jeon BH (2011) Enhancement of fermentative bioenergy (ethanol/hydrogen) production using ultrasonication of Scenedesmus obliquus YSW15 cultivated in swine wastewater effluent. Energy Environ Sci 4:3513–3520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chong A, Wong Y, Tam N (2000) Performance of different microalgal species in removing nickel and zinc from industrial wastewater. Chemosphere 41:251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Christenson L, Sims R (2011) Production and harvesting of microalgae for wastewater treatment, biofuels, and bioproducts. Biotechnol Adv 29:686–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Collet P, Lardon L, Hélias A, Bricout S, Lombaert-Valot I, Perrier B, Lépine O, Steyer J-P, Bernard O (2014) Biodiesel from microalgae-life cycle assessment and recommendations for potential improvements. Renew Energy 71:525–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Combalbert S, Hernandez-Raquet G (2010) Occurrence, fate, and biodegradation of estrogens in sewage and manure. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 86:1671–1692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Craggs R, Park J, Heubeck S, Sutherland D (2014) High rate algal pond systems for low-energy wastewater treatment, nutrient recovery and energy production. N Z J Bot 52:60–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cuellar-Bermudez SP, Aleman-Nava GS, Chandra R, Garcia-Perez JS, Contreras-Angulo JR, Markou G, Muylaert K, Rittmann BE, Parra-Saldivar R (2017) Nutrients utilization and contaminants removal. A review of two approaches of algae and cyanobacteria in wastewater. Algal Res 24:438–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Davis R, Aden A, Pienkos PT (2011) Techno-economic analysis of autotrophic microalgae for fuel production. Appl Energy 88:3524–3531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. de la Noue J, de Pauw N (1988) The potential of microalgal biotechnology: a review of production and uses of microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 6:725–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. De-Bashan LE, Bashan Y (2010) Immobilized microalgae for removing pollutants: review of practical aspects. Bioresour Technol 101:1611–1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Deborde M, Rabouan S, Mazellier P, Duguet JP, Legube B (2008) Oxidation of bisphenol A by ozone in aqueous solution. Water Res 42:4299–4308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dosnon-Olette R, Trotel-Aziz P, Couderchet M, Eullaffroy P (2010) Fungicides and herbicide removal in Scenedesmus cell suspensions. Chemosphere 79:117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eldalatony MM, Kabra AN, Hwang JH, Govindwar SP, Kim KH, Kim H, Jeon BH (2016) Pretreatment of microalgal biomass for enhanced recovery/extraction of reducing sugars and proteins. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 39:95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. El-Sheekh MM, El-Shouny WA, Osman ME, El-Gammal EW (2005) Growth and heavy metals removal efficiency of Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena subcylindrica in sewage and industrial wastewater effluents. Environ Toxicol Phar 19:357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. El-Shimi H, Attia NK, El-Sheltawy S, El-Diwani G (2013) Biodiesel production from Spirulina-platensis microalgae by in-situ transesterification process. JSBS 3:224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Florin L, Tsokoglou A, Happe T (2001) A novel type of iron hydrogenase in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus is linked to the photosynthetic electron transport chain. J Biol Chem 276:6125–6132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Frank E, Elgowainy A, Han J, Wang Z (2013) Life cycle comparison of hydrothermal liquefaction and lipid extraction pathways to renewable diesel from algae. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change 18:137–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Frank ED, Han J, Palou-Rivera I, Elgowainy A, Wang MQ (2011) Life-cycle analysis of algal lipid fuels with the GREET model. Center for Transportation Research, Energy Systems Division, Argonne National LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  44. Gallego LJ, Escobar A, Peñuela M, Peña JD, Rios LA (2015) King grass: a promising material for the production of second-generation butanol. Fuel 143:399–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gautam S, Kaithwas G, Bharagava RN, Saxena G (2017) Pollutants in tannery wastewater, pharmacological effects and bioremediation approaches for human health protection and environmental safety. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 369–396.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gonzalez-Bashan LE, Lebsky VK, Hernandez JP, Bustillos JJ, Bashan Y (2000) Changes in the metabolism of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris when coimmobilized in alginate with the nitrogen-fixing Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum. Can J Microbiol 46:653–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Goutam SP, Saxena G, Singh V, Yadav AK, Bharagava RN (2018) Green synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles using leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. for photocatalytic degradation of tannery wastewater. Chem Eng J 336:386–396.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.12.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grierson S, Strezov V, Bengtsson J (2013) Life cycle assessment of a microalgae biomass cultivation, bio-oil extraction and pyrolysis processing regime. Algal Res 2:299–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gross M, Henry W, Michael C, Wen Z (2013) Development of a rotating algal biofilm growth system for attached microalgae growth with in situ biomass harvest. Bioresour Technol 150:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gross M, Wen Z (2014) Yearlong evaluation of performance and durability of a pilot-scale Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) cultivation system. Bioresour Technol 171:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Handler RM, Shonnard DR, Kalnes TN, Lupton FS (2014) Life cycle assessment of algal biofuels: influence of feedstock cultivation systems and conversion platforms. Algal Res 4:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harto C, Meyers R, Williams E (2010) Life cycle water use of low-carbon transport fuels. Energy Policy 38:4933–4944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hazelwood LA, Daran J-M, van Maris AJ, Pronk JT, Dickinson JR (2008) The Ehrlich pathway for fusel alcohol production: a century of research on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:2259–2266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hoffmann JP (1998) Wastewater treatment with suspended and nonsuspended algae. J Phycol 34:757–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hwang JH, Church J, Lee SJ, Park J, Lee WH (2016) Use of microalgae for advanced wastewater treatment and sustainable bioenergy generation. Environ Eng Sci 33:882–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hwang JH, Kim HC, Choi JA, Abou-Shanab R, Dempsey BA, Regan JM, Kim JR, Song H, Nam IH, Kim SN, Lee W, Park D, Kim Y, Choi J, Ji MK, Jung W, Jeon BH (2014) Photoautotrophic hydrogen production by eukaryotic microalgae under aerobic conditions. Nat Commun 5:3234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Javaid MK, Ashiq M, Tahir M (2016) Potential of biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soil. Scientifica 2016:1.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1598325 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ji MK, Kabra AN, Choi J, Hwang JH, Kim JR, Abou-Shanab RA, Oh YK, Jeon BH (2014) Biodegradation of bisphenol A by the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas mexicana and Chlorella vulgaris. Ecol Eng 73:260–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jia H, Yuan Q (2016) Removal of nitrogen from wastewater using microalgae and microalgae-bacteria consortia. Cogent Environ Sci 2:1275089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kai H, Ishibashi Y, Mori T, Ishibashi H, Kawaguchi I, Ohwaki H, Takemasa T, Arizono K (2010) Decolorization and estrogenic activity of colored livestock wastewater after electrolysis treatment. J Mater Cycles Waste 12:128–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kang D, Jang Y, Moon H, Kim M, Lee K, Oh J, Lee J (2014) Wastewater treating apparatus using microalgae, in: 10-1444643-0000, K.p. (ed)Google Scholar
  62. Kim HM, Wi SG, Jung S, Song Y, Bae HJ (2015) Efficient approach for bioethanol production from red seaweed Gelidium amansii. Bioresour Technol 175:128–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kim J, Liu Z, Lee J-Y, Lu T (2013a) Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewater effluent using Chlorella vulgaris and its growth kinetics. Desalin Water Treat 51:7800–7806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kim J, Yoo G, Lee H, Lim J, Kim K, Kim CW, Park MS, Yang J-W (2013b) Methods of downstream processing for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 31:862–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kondo T, Tezuka H, Ishii J, Matsuda F, Ogino C, Kondo A (2012) Genetic engineering to enhance the Ehrlich pathway and alter carbon flux for increased isobutanol production from glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biotechnol 159:32–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kong QX, Li L, Martinez B, Chen P, Ruan R (2010) Culture of microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in wastewater for biomass feedstock production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 160:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kumar K, Dasgupta CN, Nayak B, Lindblad P, Das D (2011) Development of suitable photobioreactors for CO2 sequestration addressing global warming using green algae and cyanobacteria. Bioresour Technol 102:4945–4953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kumar KS, Dahms HU, Won EJ, Lee JS, Shin KH (2015) Microalgae – a promising tool for heavy metal remediation. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 113:329–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lan EI, Liao JC (2013) Microbial synthesis of n-butanol, isobutanol, and other higher alcohols from diverse resources. Bioresour Technol 135:339–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Li R, Chen GZ, Tam NFY, Luan TG, Shin PK, Cheung SG, Liu Y (2009) Toxicity of bisphenol A and its bioaccumulation and removal by a marine microalga Stephanodiscus hantzschii. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Liu X, Saydah B, Eranki P, Colosi LM, Mitchell BG, Rhodes J, Clarens AF (2013) Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction. Bioresour Technol 148:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mallick N (2002) Biotechnological potential of immobilized algae for wastewater N, P and metal removal: a review. Biometals 15:377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mara D (2009) Waste stabilization ponds: past, present and future. Desalin Water Treat 4:85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mehta SK, Gaur JP (2001) Characterization and optimization of Ni and Cu sorption from aqueous solution by Chlorella vulgaris. Ecol Eng 18:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Melis A, Zhang L, Forestier M, Ghirardi ML, Seibert M (2000) Sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production upon reversible inactivation of oxygen evolution in the green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol 122:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Molina-Grima E, Belarbi EH, Acien-Fernandez FG, Robles-Medina A, Chisti Y (2003) Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: process options and economics. Biotechnol Adv 20:491–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mrudula S, Shyam N (2012) Immobilization of Bacillus megaterium MTCC 2444 by Ca-alginate entrapment method for enhanced alkaline protease production. Braz Arch Biol Technol 55:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mu D, Min M, Krohn B, Mullins KA, Ruan R, Hill J (2014) Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels. Environ Sci Technol 48:11696–11704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Muñoz R, Alvarez MT, Muñoz A, Terrazas E, Guieysse B, Mattiasson B (2006) Sequential removal of heavy metals ions and organic pollutants using an algal-bacterial consortium. Chemosphere 63:903–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Neamţu M, Frimmel FH (2006) Degradation of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A by 254nm irradiation in different water matrices and effect on yeast cells. Water Res 40:3745–3750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Noüe J, Laliberté G, Proulx D (1992) Algae and waste water. J Appl Phycol 4:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Or-Rashid MM, AlZahal O, McBride BW (2008) Studies on the production of conjugated linoleic acid from linoleic and vaccenic acids by mixed rumen protozoa. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81:533–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Oswald WJ (1991) Introduction to advanced integrated wastewater ponding systems. Water Sci Technol 24:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Passell H, Dhaliwal H, Reno M, Wu B, Ben Amotz A, Ivry E, Gay M, Czartoski T, Laurin L, Ayer N (2013) Algae biodiesel life cycle assessment using current commercial data. J Environ Manag 129:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pawar S (2016) Effectiveness mapping of open raceway pond and tubular photobioreactors for sustainable production of microalgae biofuel. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 62:640–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ponnusamy S, Reddy HK, Muppaneni T, Downes CM, Deng S (2014) Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from algal bio-crude oils extracted under subcritical water conditions. Bioresour Technol 170:454–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Quinn JC, Davis R (2015) The potentials and challenges of algae based biofuels: a review of the techno-economic, life cycle, and resource assessment modeling. Bioresour Technol 184:444–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Quinn JC, Smith TG, Downes CM, Quinn C (2014) Microalgae to biofuels lifecycle assessment-multiple pathway evaluation. Algal Res 4:116–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Quinn JC, Yates T, Douglas N, Weyer K, Butler J, Bradley TH, Lammers PJ (2012) Nannochloropsis production metrics in a scalable outdoor photobioreactor for commercial applications. Bioresour Technol 117:164–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Radwan S, Al-Hasan R, Salamah S, Al-Dabbous S (2002) Bioremediation of oily sea water by bacteria immobilized in biofilms coating macroalgae. Int Biodeter Biodegr 50:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Richardson JW, Johnson MD, Outlaw JL (2012) Economic comparison of open pond raceways to photo bio-reactors for profitable production of algae for transportation fuels in the southwest. Algal Res 1:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Roca C, Olsson L (2003) Increasing ethanol productivity during xylose fermentation by cell recycling of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60:560–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Santhanam N (2009) Oilgae guide to algae-based wastewater treatment. Home of Algal Energy, TamilnaduGoogle Scholar
  94. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2015) Persistent organic pollutants and bacterial communities present during the treatment of tannery wastewater. In: Chandra R (ed) Environmental waste management, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 217–247.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b19243-10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2017) Organic and inorganic pollutants in industrial wastes, their ecotoxicological effects, health hazards and bioremediation approaches. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 23–56.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Saxena G, Chandra R, Bharagava RN (2016) Environmental pollution, toxicity profile and treatment approaches for tannery wastewater and its chemical pollutants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 240:31–69.  https://doi.org/10.1007/398_2015_5009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Saxena G, Purchase D, Mulla SI, Saratale GD, Bharagava RN (2018) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites: environmental considerations, field studies, sustainability and future prospects. J Environ Manag 16(1):55Google Scholar
  98. Sharma KK, Schuhmann H, Schenk PM (2012) High lipid induction in microalgae for biodiesel production. Energies 5:1532–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shen CR, Liao JC (2008) Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for 1-butanol and 1-propanol production via the keto-acid pathways. Metab Eng 10:312–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shirvani T, Yan X, Inderwildi OR, Edwards PP, King DA (2011) Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas analysis for algae-derived biodiesel. Energy Environ Sci 4:3773–3778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shoener B, Bradley I, Cusick R, Guest J (2014) Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies. Environ Sci Process Impacts 16:1204–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sills DL, Paramita V, Franke MJ, Johnson MC, Akabas TM, Greene CH, Tester JW (2013) Quantitative uncertainty analysis of life cycle assessment for algal biofuel production. Environ Sci Technol 47:687–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Slade R, Bauen A (2013) Micro-algae cultivation for biofuels: cost, energy balance, environmental impacts and future prospects. Biomass Bioenergy 53:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Soh L, Montazeri M, Haznedaroglu BZ, Kelly C, Peccia J, Eckelman MJ, Zimmerman JB (2014) Evaluating microalgal integrated biorefinery schemes: empirical controlled growth studies and life cycle assessment. Bioresour Technol 151:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sturm BS, Lamer SL (2011) An energy evaluation of coupling nutrient removal from wastewater with algal biomass production. Appl Energy 88:3499–3506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Su Y, Mennerich A, Urban B (2011) Municipal wastewater treatment and biomass accumulation with a wastewater-born and settleable algal-bacterial culture. Water Res 45:3351–3358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Su Y, Mennerich A, Urban B (2012) Synergistic cooperation between wastewater-born algae and activated sludge for wastewater treatment: influence of algae and sludge inoculation ratios. Bioresour Technol 105:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sun A, Davis R, Starbuck M, Ben-Amotz A, Pate R, Pienkos PT (2011) Comparative cost analysis of algal oil production for biofuels. Energy 36:5169–5179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Torpey WN, Heukelekian H, Kaplovsky AJ, Epstein R (1971) Rotating disks with biological growths prepare wastewater for disposal or reuse. J Water Pollut Control Fed 43:2181–2188Google Scholar
  110. Tuantet K, Temmink H, Zeeman G, Janssen M, Wijffels RH, Buisman CJ (2014) Nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on urine in a short light-path photobioreactor. Water Res 55:162–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vasudevan V, Stratton RW, Pearlson MN, Jersey GR, Beyene AG, Weissman JC, Rubino M, Hileman JI (2012) Environmental performance of algal biofuel technology options. Environ Sci Technol 46:2451–2459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Warabi Y, Kusdiana D, Saka S (2004) Reactivity of triglycerides and fatty acids of rapeseed oil in supercritical alcohols. Bioresour Technol 91:283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wincencjusz H, van Gorkom HJ, Yocum CF (1997) The photosynthetic oxygen evolving complex requires chloride for its redox state S2→ S3 and S3→ S0 transitions but not for S0→ S1 or S1→ S2 transitions. Biochemist 36:3663–3670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Woertz IC, Benemann JR, Du N, Unnasch S, Mendola D, Mitchell BG, Lundquist TJ (2014) Life cycle ghg emissions from microalgal biodiesel -a ca-GREET model. Environ Sci Technol 48:6060–6068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Xu L, Weathers PJ, Xiong XR, Liu CZ (2009) Microalgal bioreactors: challenges and opportunities. Eng Life Sci 9:178–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yang J, Xu M, Zhang X, Hu Q, Sommerfeld M, Chen Y (2011) Life-cycel analysis on biodiesel production from microalgae: Water footprint and nutrients balance. Bioresour Technol 102:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zaimes GG, Khanna V (2013) Microalgal biomass production pathways: evaluation of life cycle environmental impacts. Biotechnol Biofuels 6:88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhou GJ, Ying GG, Liu S, Zhou LJ, Chen ZF, Peng FQ (2014) Simultaneous removal of inorganic and organic compounds in wastewater by freshwater green microalgae. Environ Sci Process Impacts 16:2018–2027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhu L, Wang Z, Shu Q, Takala J, Hiltunen E, Feng P, Yuan Z (2013) Nutrient removal and biodiesel production by integration of freshwater algae cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment. Water Res 47:4294–4302CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jae-Hoon Hwang
    • 1
  • Anwar Sadmani
    • 1
  • Seung-Jin Lee
    • 2
  • Keug-Tae Kim
    • 3
  • Woo Hyoung Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Civil, Environmental and Construction EngineeringUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science, Engineering, and Physics & Department of Geography, Planning, and EnvironmentUniversity of Michigan-FlintFlintUSA
  3. 3.Department of Environmental & Energy EngineeringUniversity of SuwonHwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-doRepublic of Korea (South Korea)

Personalised recommendations