Advertisement

Toxic Metals in Industrial Wastewaters and Phytoremediation Using Aquatic Macrophytes for Environmental Pollution Control: An Eco-Remedial Approach

  • Mansi Rastogi
  • Meenakshi Nandal
Chapter

Abstract

Toxic pollutants contaminate water by discharging wastewater generated through municipal, industrial, and landfill site waste, etc. It is emerging as a worldwide problem as it enormously affects human, fauna, and flora health of receiving water. During last few decades, the exponential population growth, productivity variation and consumption rates, and resources exploitation along with rapid industrial and technical development are seen as major contributors that accompany water pollution. Wastewater treatment has been a problem for mankind since the discovery of additional environmental problems caused by wastes discharge into surface waters was done. Though control and prevention technologies are being applied to most of these industrial and municipal sources and there is availability of a wide range of wastewater treatment technologies for restoring and maintaining the biological, chemical, and physical quality of wastewaters, still there is a staggering amount of these agents released into the environment. Another major proven threat to water is heavy metal toxicity with several associated health risks. Although they do not play any big biological role, their trace present in certain form can harm the human body and its proper functioning. This chapter discusses wastewater characteristics, toxic metals added to water, the role of plants in constructed wetlands in removal of various pollutants to remediate the wastewaters from various sources, and constraints and future of constructed wetland as a cleanup technique in wastewater remediation.

Keywords

Wastewater Pollution Treatment Constructed wetlands Remediation 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This book chapter would not have been possible without support from "Springer Singapore" published under Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. We are especially indebted to Dr. Ram Naresh Bharagava and Mr. Gaurav Saxena for providing us with this oppurtunity. We wish to place on record the valuable supervision rendered by the them in reviewing and editing the chapter.

References

  1. Adriano DC (2001) Trace elements in terrestrial environments. In: Biogeochemistry, bioavailability, and risks of metals. Springer, New York, pp 1–550Google Scholar
  2. Aksu Z (2002) Determination of the equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the batch biosorption of nickel(II) ions onto Chlorella vulgaris. Process Biochem 38:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Álvarez AM, Carral P, Hernández Z, Almendros G (2016) Hydrocarbon pollution from domestic oil recycling industries in peri-urban soils. Lipid molecular assemblages. J Environ Chem Eng 4:695–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armah FA, Obiri S, Yawson DO, Onumah EE, TYengoh GT, Afrifa EKA, Odoi JO (2010) Anthropogenic sources and environmentally relevant concentrations of heavy metals in surface water of a mining district in Ghana: a multivariate statistical approach. J Environ Sci Health A 45:1804–1813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avtar R, Kumar P, Singh C, Mukherjee S (2011) A comparative study on hydrogeochemistry of Ken and Betwa Rivers of Bundelkhand using statistical approach. Water Qual Expo Health 2:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Awadallah AG, Yousry M (2012) Identifying homogeneous water quality regions in the Nile River using multivariate statistical analysis. Water Resour Manag 26:2039–2055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagshaw JC, Rafiee P, Matthews CO, MacRae TH (1986) Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 37:289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bharagava RN, Saxena G, Mulla SI, Patel DK (2017a) Characterization and identification of recalcitrant organic pollutants (ROPs) in tannery wastewater and its phytotoxicity evaluation for environmental safety. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0490-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bharagava RN, Chowdhary P, Saxena G (2017b) Bioremediation: an ecosustainable green technology: its applications and limitations. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bharagava RN, Saxena G, Chowdhary P (2017c) Constructed wetlands: an emerging phytotechnology for degradation and detoxification of industrial wastewaters. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 397–426.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhuiyan MAH, Suruvi NI, Dampare SB, Islam MA, Quraishi SB, Ganyaglo S, Suzuki S (2011) Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and canal water in the tannery industrial area in Dhaka-Bangladesh. Environ Monit Assess 175:633–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhutta MN, Ramzan M, Hafeez CA (2002) Groundwater quality and availability in Pakistan. In: Proceedings of seminar on strategies to address the present and future water quality issues. PCRWR, Islamabad. Pak Rev Sci Eau 12:671–686Google Scholar
  13. Blaylock MJ, Huang JW (2000) Phytoextraction of metals. In: Raskin I, Ensley BD (eds) Phytoremediation of toxic metals using plants to clean up the environment. Wiley, New York, pp 53–70Google Scholar
  14. Cachada A, Pereira ME, Ferreira SE, Duarte AC (2011) Sources of potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants in an urban area subjected to an industrial impact. Environ Monit Assess 184:15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cameron RE (1992) Guide to site and soil description for hazardous waste site characterisation. In: Metals. Environmental Protection Agency EPA 1,/600/4-91/029, Las VegasGoogle Scholar
  16. Chakraborty S, Dutta AR, Sural S, Gupta D, Sen S (2013) Ailing bones and failing kidneys: a case of chronic cadmium toxicity. Ann Clin Biochem 50(5):492–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chandra R, Saxena G, Kumar V (2015) Phytoremediation of environmental pollutants: an eco-sustainable green technology to environmental management. In: Chandra R (ed) Advances in biodegradation and bioremediation of industrial waste, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 1–30.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b18218-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chaney RL, Malik M, Li YM, Brown SL, Brewer EP, Angle JS, Baker AJM (1997) Phytoremediation of soil metals. Curr Opin Biotechnol 8:279–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheng SP, Grosse W, Karrenbrock F, Thoennessen M (2002) Efficiency of constructed wetlands in decontamination of water polluted by heavy metals. Ecol Eng 18(3):317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clayton LR (2007) Phytoremediation. Encyclopedia of plant and crop science. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. DeBusk WF (1999) Wastewater treatment wetlands: contaminant removal processes. Gainesville University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  22. Dong J, Mao WH, Zhang GP, Wu FB, Cai Y (2007) Root excretion and plant tolerance to cadmium toxicity–a review. Plant Soil Environ 53:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Droppo IG, Leppard GG, Flannigan DT, Liss SN (1997) The freshwater floc: a functional relationship of water and organic andinorganic floc constituents affecting suspended sediment properties. Water Air Soil Pollut 99(1–4):43–53Google Scholar
  24. Dulaing G, Ryckegem G, Tack F, Verloo M (2006) Metal accumulation in intertidal litter through decomposing leaf blades, sheaths and stems of Phragmitesaustralis. Chemosphere 63(11):1815–1823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Duvnjak ZS, Al-Asheh (1997) Sorption of cadmium and other heavy metals by pine bark. Adv Environ Res 1:194Google Scholar
  26. Ensley BD (2000) Rational for use of phytoremediation. In: Raskin I, Ensley BD (eds) Phytoremediation of toxic metals: using plants to clean- up the environment. Wiley, New York, pp 3–12Google Scholar
  27. Fassett DW (1980) Cadmium. In: Waldron HA (ed) Metals in the environment. Academic, New York, pp 61–11Google Scholar
  28. Gautam S, Kaithwas G, Bharagava RN, Saxena G (2017) Pollutants in tannery wastewater, pharmacological effects and bioremediation approaches for human health protection and environmental safety. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 369–396.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Golub MS (ed) (2005) Metals, fertility, and reproductive toxicity. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, p 153Google Scholar
  30. Goutam SP, Saxena G, Singh V, Yadav AK, Bharagava RN (2018) Green synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles using leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. for photocatalytic degradation of tannery wastewater. Chem Eng J 336:386–396.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.12.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hakeem KR (ed) (2015) Crop production and global environmental issues. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  32. Hansen D, Duda PJ, Zayed A, Terry N (1998) Selenium removal by constructed wetlands: role of biological volatilization. Environ Sci Technol 32:591–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hartley W, Dickinson NM (2010) Exposure of an anoxic and contaminated canal sediment: mobility of metal(loid)s. Environ Pollut 158(3):649–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harvey CF, Swartz CH, Badruzzaman ABM, Keon-Blute N, Yu W, Ali MA (2002) Arsenic mobility and groundwater extraction in Bangladesh. Science 298:1602–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Holdren C, Harte J, Schneider R, Shirley C (1991) A guides to commonly encountered toxics. In: Harte J, Holdren C, Schneider R, Shirley C (eds) Toxics A to Z – a guide to everyday pollution hazards. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 244–247, 436–438Google Scholar
  36. Holleman AF, Wiberg E (1985) Lehebuch du Anoranischenchemie. Water de Gruyter, Berlin, p 868Google Scholar
  37. Hudak PF (2012) Chloride/bromide ratios in leachate derived from farm-animal waste. Environ inorganic floc constituents affecting suspended sediment properties. Water Air Soil Pollut 99(1–4):43–53Google Scholar
  38. ITRC (Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council) (2003) Technical and regulatory guidance document for constructed treatment wetlands. The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council Wetlands TeamGoogle Scholar
  39. Jeffery EH, Abreo K, Burgess E, Cannata J, Greger JL (1997) Systemic aluminum toxicity: effects on bone, hematopoietic tissue, and kidney. In: Yokel RA, Golub MS (eds) Research issues in aluminum toxicity. Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC, pp 133–149Google Scholar
  40. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  41. Kelderman P, Osman AA (2007) Effect of redox potential on heavy metal binding forms in polluted canal sediments in Delft (The Netherlands). Water Res 41:4251–4261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kusel K (2003) Microbial cycling of iron and sulfur in acidic coal mining lake sediments. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 3(1):67–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lacerda LD, Carvalho CEV, Tanizaki KF, Ovalle ARC, Rezende CE (1993) The biogeochemistry and trace metals distribution of mangrove rhizospheres. Biotropica 25(3):252–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lin ZQ, Schemenauer RS, Cervinka V, Zayed A, Lee A, Terry N (2000) Selenium volatilization from a soil plant system for the remediation of contaminated water and soil in the San Joaquin Valley. J Environ Qual 29:1048–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Locke MA, Gaston LA, Zablotowicz RM (1997) Acifluorfen sorption and sorption kinetics in soil. J Agric Food Chem 45(1):286–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martin S, Griswold W (2009) Human health effects of heavy metals. Environ Sci Technol Briefs Citiz 15:1–6Google Scholar
  47. Matagi SV, Swai D, Mugabe R (1998) A review of heavy metal removal mechanisms in wetlands. Afr J Trop Hydrobiol Fish 8:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McKinney ML, Schoch R, Yonavjak L (2013) Environmental science: systems and solution, 5th edn. Jones and Bartlett Learning Inc, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  49. Mei B, Puryear JD, Newton RJ (2002) Assessment of Cr tolerance and accumulation in selected plant species. Plant Soil 247:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mohan D, Pittman CU Jr (2007) Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents – a critical review. J Hazard Mater 142(1–2):1–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Morais S, Costa FG, Pereira ML (2012) Heavy metals and human health. In: Oosthuizen J (ed) Environmental health – emerging issues and practice. InTech, Rijeka, pp 227–246Google Scholar
  52. Morse JW (1994) Interactions of trace metals with authigenicsulphide minerals: implications for their bioavailability. Mar Chem 46(1–2):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mroczek EK (2005) Contributions of arsenic and chloride from the Kawerau geothermal field to the Tarawera River, New Zealand. Geothermics 34:218–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mukesh KR, Kumar P, Singh M, Singh A (2008) Toxic effect of heavy metals in livestock health. Netherlands. Water Res 41(18):4251–4261Google Scholar
  55. Ng JC, Wang JP, Shraim A (2003) A global health problem caused by arsenic from natural sources. Chemosphere 52:1353–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Papoyan A, Piñeros M, Kochian LV (2007) Plant Cd2+ and Zn2+ status effects on root and shoot heavy metal accumulation in Thlaspicaerulescens. New Phytol 175(1):51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Peng JF, Song YH, Yuan P, Cui XY, Qiu GL (2009) The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment. J Hazard Mater 161(2–3):633–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pilon-Smits EAH, de Souza MP, Hong G, Amini A, Bravo RC (1999) Selenium volatilization and accumulation by twenty aquatic plant species. J Environ Qual 28:1011–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Raja G, Venkatesan P (2010) Assessment of groundwater pollution and its impact in and around Punnam area of Karur district, Tamil Nadu, India. J Chem 2:473–478Google Scholar
  60. Raskin I, Ensley BD (eds) (2000) Phytoremediation of toxic metals: using plants to clean up the environment. Wiley, New York, p 352Google Scholar
  61. Raskin I, Kumar PBAN, Dushenkov S, Salt DE (1994) Bioconcentration of heavy metals by plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 5:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Raut N, Charif G, Al-Saadi A, Al-Aisri S, Al-Ajmi A (2012) A critical review of removal of Zinc from wastewater. In: Proceedings of the world congress on Engineering 1, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  63. Reboreda R, Caçador I (2007) Halophyte vegetation influences in salt marsh retention capacity for heavy metals. Environ Pollut 146(1):147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Salt DE, Blaylock M, Kunmar NPBA, Dushenkov V, Ensley BD, Chet I (1995) Phytoremediation: a novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants. Biotechnology 13:468–474Google Scholar
  65. Salt DE, Smith RD, Raskin I (1998) Phytoremediation. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:643–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2015) Persistent organic pollutants and bacterial communities present during the treatment of tannery wastewater. In: Chandra R (ed) Environmental waste management, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 217–247.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b19243-10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2017) Organic and inorganic pollutants in industrial wastes, their ecotoxicological effects, health hazards and bioremediation approaches. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 23–56.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Saxena G, Chandra R, Bharagava RN (2016) Environmental pollution, toxicity profile and treatment approaches for tannery wastewater and its chemical pollutants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 240:31–69.  https://doi.org/10.1007/398_2015_5009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Saxena G, Purchase D, Mulla SI, Saratale GD, Bharagava RN (2019) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites: eco-environmental concerns, field studies, sustainability issues and future prospects. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/398_2019_24 Google Scholar
  70. Sharma A, Johri BN (2003) BN growth promoting influence of siderophore-producing Pseudomonas strains GRP3A and PRS9 in maize (Zea mays L.) under iron limiting conditions. Microbiol Res 158:243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sheoran AS, Sheoran V (2006) Heavy metal removal mechanism of acid mine drainage in wetlands: a critical review. Miner Eng 19(2):105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Silva Alves RI, Oliveira Cardoso O, Abreu Tonani KA, Julião FC, Trevilato TMB, Segura-Muñoz SI (2012) Water quality of the Ribeirãopreto stream, a watercourse under anthropogenic influence in the southeast of Brazil. Environ Monit Assess 185:1151–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Singh KP, Malik A, Mohan D, Sinha S (2004) Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in water quality of Gomti River (India): a case study. Water Res 38:3980–3992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smedley PL, Kinniburgh DG (2002) A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural waters. Appl Geochem 17:517–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sobolewski A (1999) A review of processes responsible for metal removal in wetlands treating contaminated mine drainage. Int J Phytoremediation 1(1):19–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Terry N, Carlson C, Raab TK, Zayed AM (1992) Rates of selenium volatilization among crop species. J Environ Qual 21:341–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (1997) Mercury study report to congress. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/mercury/report.htm. Accessed on 10 Mar 2017
  78. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Manual WM. Government Institutes IncGoogle Scholar
  79. USEPA (2003) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). USEPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  80. Valko MMHCM, Morris H, Cronin MTD (2005) Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem 12(10):1161–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. VandenBerg GA, GustavLoch JP, vanderHeijdt LM, Zwolsman JJG (1999) Mobilisation of heavy metals in contaminated sediments in the river Meuse, The Netherlands. Water Air Soil Pollut 116(3–4):567–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vandenhove H, van Hees M, van Winkel S (2001) Feasibility of phytoextraction to clean up low-level uranium-contaminated soil. Int J Phytoremediation 3:301–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vangronsveld J, Herzig R, Weyens N, Boulet J, Adriaensen K, Ruttens A (2009) Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 16:765–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vassil AD, Kapulmik Y, Raskin I, Salt DE (1998) The role of EDTA in lead transport and accumulation by Indian mustard. Plant Physiol 117:447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Walker DJ, Hurl S (2002) The reduction of heavy metals in a stormwater wetland. Ecol Eng 18(4):407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang Z, Yang L (2015) Delinking indicators on regional industry development and carbon emissions: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei economic band case. Ecol Indic 48:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Weis JS, Weis P (2004) Metal uptake, transport and release by wetland plants: implications for phytoremediation and restoration. Environ Int 30(5):685–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wilson DJ, Chang E (2000) Bioturbation and the oxidation of sulfide in sediments. J Tenn Acad Sci 75:76–85Google Scholar
  89. Yao ZG, Gao P (2007) Heavy metal research in lacustrine sediment: a review. Chin J Oceanol Limnol 25(4):444–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zayed A, Pilon Smits E, deSouza M, Lin ZQ, Terry N (2000) Remediation of selenium polluted soils and waters by phytovolatilization. In: Terry N, Bañuelos G (eds) Phytoremediation of contaminated soil and water. Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 61–83Google Scholar
  91. Zoppou C (2001) Review of urban storm water models. Environ Model Softw 16(3):195–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zoumis T, Schmidt A, Grigorova L, Calmano W (2001) Contaminants in sediments: remobilisation and demobilisation. Sci Total Environ 266(1–3):195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mansi Rastogi
    • 1
  • Meenakshi Nandal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesMaharshi Dayanand UniversityRohtakIndia

Personalised recommendations