Microphysical Representations and Their Consistency with In Situ and Remote-Sensing Observations

  • Ziad S. HaddadEmail author
Part of the Springer Atmospheric Sciences book series (SPRINGERATMO)


The different microphysical schemes developed to date represent hydrometeors using parameters whose statistics—mean values, variances, correlations, and joint probability distribution—have not received much scrutiny, let alone validation against actual observations. This leads to some very problematic inconsistencies, which are described in this chapter, along with guidance on approaches to resolve them objectively.


Hydrometeors Cloud microphysics Precipitation 



This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2018. All rights reserved.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyLa Cañada FlintridgeUSA

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