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Land Surface Processes

  • Dev NiyogiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Atmospheric Sciences book series (SPRINGERATMO)

Abstract

The role of land surface processes on monsoonal mesoscale convection and rainfall is discussed. The chapter initially provides a foundational framework for the land surface and land–atmosphere coupling processes. This is followed by a discussion regarding the role and the need for improving land feedbacks within multiscale models and processes. In particular, the role of land surface models in providing surface boundary conditions within numerical weather prediction models is highlighted. Building on the observational understanding related to the role of land surface processes and changes on the regional weather and climate, the land surface feedbacks over the monsoon region are summarized. The chapter concludes by highlighting the need for work on three challenges to advance the high-impact monsoon weather prediction. These challenges include (i) more realistic inclusion of land processes and model parameterizations that account for the land–atmosphere feedbacks; (ii) development of datasets including data fusion products that can be used for input conditions including initialization of the land models as well as validation of newer schemes; and (iii) more coordinated model calibration/validation efforts with focus on the monsoon region by community of users (such as Indian land model intercomparison project—using both offline and coupled studies). Studies are especially needed for improving the representation of human-managed landscapes such as urban areas and agricultural croplands in the monsoon region. A more concerted effort linking land model with boundary layer coupling, and convection / microphysical parameterizations is needed as they intimately impact the performance of the coupled numerical weather prediction system.

Keywords

Land atmosphere interactions Surface energy balance Mesoscale convection Heavy rainfall Land use land cover change Soil moisture Atmospheric boundary layer 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work in this chapter benefitted from a National Monsoon Mission project Earth System Science Organization, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India (Grant no./Project no MM/SERP/CNRS/2013/INT-10/002), the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF CAREER grant AGS-0847472 (Ming Cai), NSF CDSE-01250232, NSF AGS-1522492 (Chungu Lu), and USDA Hatch grant 1007699.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Purdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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