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Pain in the Neurocritical Care Unit

  • Matt Fischer
  • Markus Jackson
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed
Chapter

Abstract

Pain is ubiquitous in the neurocritical care unit, stemming both from a patient’s underlying pathophysiology and the requirement for invasive monitoring and therapies. Untreated pain begets problematic physiologic consequences across multiple organ systems. Effective analgesic regimens depend on reliable methods for monitoring pain levels as well as associated depth of sedation, and specific tools are available for both communicative and noncommunicative patients. Effective multimodal analgesia commonly includes a combination of pharmacologic agents to achieve optimal pain control while minimizing untoward side effects. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of opioids, benzodiazepines, propofol, and dexmedetomidine are discussed due to their prevalence in critical care units.

Keywords

Neurocritical care ICU Pain Sedation Delirium Multimodal analgesia Opioid Propofol Benzodiazepine Dexmedetomidine 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matt Fischer
    • 1
  • Markus Jackson
    • 1
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed
    • 1
  1. 1.AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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