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Endocrine Management in the Neurosurgical Patient

  • Shaun E. Gruenbaum
  • Christian S. Guay
  • Saul S. Siller
  • Federico Bilotta
Chapter

Abstract

The endocrine system closely interacts with the nervous system to regulate numerous physiological functions in the human body. Disorders of the endocrine system are common in the neurosurgical patient, and the perioperative care of these patients requires an in-depth understanding of how endocrine dysfunction affects neurophysiology and postoperative outcomes. A diligent preoperative workup and optimization is essential to minimize the risk of perioperative complications. Complications associated with endocrine dysfunction can be severe and even life-threatening, and must be promptly recognized and treated. In this chapter, we review the considerations for the perioperative management of the neurosurgical patient with coexisting endocrine dysfunction. Specifically, we address relevant anatomy and physiology principles, perioperative considerations for the patient undergoing pituitary adenoma resection, and management of intracranial and extracranial endocrinopathies and highlight important perioperative endocrine-associated complications.

Keywords

Endocrine disorders Neuroanesthesia Neurocritical care Diabetes mellitus Pituitary gland Adrenal gland Pancreas Hypothalamus Pineal gland Thyroid gland 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaun E. Gruenbaum
    • 1
  • Christian S. Guay
    • 2
  • Saul S. Siller
    • 3
  • Federico Bilotta
    • 4
  1. 1.Mayo ClinicJacksonvilleUSA
  2. 2.Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital at McGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Stony Brook University School of MedicineStony BrookUSA
  4. 4.Sapienza University of RomeRomeItaly

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