Advertisement

Out-of-Field Teaching Affecting Students and Learning: What Is Known and Unknown

  • Raphaela PorschEmail author
  • Robert Whannell
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter presents a review of empirical literature which has investigated the research relating to the association between teacher qualification to teach a subject and the quality of student outcomes. The studies reported mixed findings when investigating the hypothesis that qualified, in-field teachers obtain better student outcomes then unqualified, out-of-field teachers. It is proposed that the research relating to the out-of-field phenomenon is not sufficiently mature for definitive conclusions to be made. It is considered that the differences in definitional and methodological approaches being used need to be overcome. To produce an empirical base of sound evidence, future research would require a more sophisticated approach to defining out-of-field membership, based perhaps on a construct such as identity, and methodological techniques such as multilevel regression modelling on an appropriately sized dataset.

Keywords

Out-of-field teaching Teaching across subject boundaries Out-of-field research methodology 

References

  1. Baumert, J., & Kunter, M. (2013). The COACTIV model of teachers’ professional competence. In M. Kunter, J. Baumert, W. Blum, U. Klusmann, S. Krauss & M. Neubrand (Eds.), Cognitive activation in the mathematics classroom and professional competence of teachers. results from the COACTIV project (pp. 25–48). NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumert, J., et al. (2010). Teachers’ mathematical knowledge, cognitive activation in the classroom, and student progress. American Educational Research Journal, 47(1), 133–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blömeke, S., Olsen, R. V., & Suhl, U. (2016). Relation of student achievement to the quality of their teachers and instructional quality. In T. Nilsen & J.-E. Gustafsson (Eds.), Teacher quality, instructional quality and student outcomes. Relationships across countries, cohorts and time (pp. 21–50). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Bosse, M., & Törner, G. (2015). Teacher identity as a theoretical framework for researching out-of-field teaching mathematics teachers. In C. Bernack, R. Erens, A. Eichler & T. Leuders (Eds.), Views and beliefs in mathematics education (pp. 1–14). Wiesbaden: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, E. T., Molfese, V. J., & Molfese, P. (2008). Preschool student learning in literacy and mathematics: impact of teacher experience, qualifications, and beliefs on an at-risk-sample. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 13(1), 106–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buddin, R., & Zamarro, G. (2009). Teacher qualifications and middle school student achievement. Retrieved June 30, 2017, from www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/working_papers/2009/RAND_WR671.pdf.
  7. Burke, P. (2006). Identity change. Social Psychology Quarterly, 69(1), 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2006). Teacher-student matching and the assessment of teacher effectiveness. Journal of Human Resources, 41(4), 778–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2012). Teacher credentials and student achievement in high school. Journal of Human Resources, 45(3), 655–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Education policy analysis archives, 8(1). Retrieved June 30, 2017, from epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/download/392/515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dee, T. S., & Cohodes, S. R. (2008). Out-of-field teachers and student achievement: Evidence from matched-pairs comparisons. Public Finance Review, 36(7), 7–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Diez, M. E. (2010). It is complicated: Unpacking the flow of teacher education’s impact on student learning. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(5), 441–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Du Plessis, A. E. (2013). Understanding the out-of-field teaching experience. A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Queensland. Retrieved June 30, 2017, from http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:330372/s4245616_phd_submission.pdf.
  14. Du Plessis, A. E. (2015). Effective education: Conceptualising the meaning of out-of-field teaching practices for teachers, teacher quality and school leaders. International Journal of Educational Research, 72, 89–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goldhaber, D. D., & Brewer, D. J. (1996). Evaluating the effect of teacher degree level on educational performance. Developments in School Finance, 199–210. Retrieved June 30, 2017, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs97/97535l.pdf.
  16. Goldhaber, D. D., & Brewer, D. J. (2000). Does teacher certification matter? High school certification status and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22, 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldhaber, D. D. (2002). The mystery of good teaching. Education Next, 2(1), 50–55.Google Scholar
  18. Hobbs, L. (2012). Teaching out-of-field: Factors shaping identities of secondary science and mathematics. Teaching Science, 58(1), 21–29.Google Scholar
  19. Hobbs, L. (2013a). Boundary crossings of out-of-field teachers: Locating learning possibilities amid disruption. In J. Langan-Fox & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Boundary-spanning in organizations: Network, influence, and conflict (pp. 7–28). NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Hobbs, L. (2013b). Teaching ‘out-of-field’ as a boundary-crossing event: Factors shaping teacher identity. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 11(2), 271–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoffmann, L., & Richter, D. (2016). Aspekte der Aus- und Fortbildung von Deutsch- und Englischlehrkräften im Ländervergleich. In P. Stanat, K. Böhme, S. Schipolowski & N. Haag (Eds.), IQB-Bildungstrend 2015. Sprachliche Kompetenzen am Ende der 9. Jahrgangsstufe im zweiten Ländervergleich (pp. 481–507). Münster: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  22. Hox, J. J. (2010). Multilevel analysis. Techniques and applications. NY & Hove, GB: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ingersoll, R. (1999). The problem of underqualified teachers in American secondary schools. Educational Researcher, 28(2), 26–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ingersoll, R. M. (2002). Measuring out-of-field teaching. Unpublished manuscript, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  25. Ingersoll, R. M. (2003). Out-of-field teaching and the limits of teacher policy. Report of The Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy and The Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 32 pages. Retrieved June 30, 2017, from http://www.education.uw.edu/ctp/sites/default/files/ctpmail/PDFs/LimitsPolicy-RI-09-2003.pdf.
  26. Kane, T. J., Rockoff, J. E., & Staiger, D. O. (2007). Photo finish: Certification does not guarantee a winner. Education Next, 7(1), 61–67.Google Scholar
  27. Kunter, M., Baumert, J., Blum, W., Klusmann, U., Krauss, S., & Neubrand, M. (Eds.). (2013a). Cognitive activation in the mathematics classroom and professional competence of teachers. Results from the COACTIV project. Results from the COACTIV project NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Kunter, M., Kleickmann, T., Klusmann, U., & Richter, D. (2013). The Development of Teachers’ Professional Competence. In M. Kunter, J. Baumert, W. Blum, U. Klusmann, S. Krauss & M. Neubrand (Eds.), Cognitive activation in the mathematics classroom and professional competence of teachers. Results from the COACTIV Project (pp. 63–78). NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Kyriakides, L., Creemers, B. P., & Antoniou, P. (2009). Teacher behaviour and student outcomes: Suggestions for research on teacher training and professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 12–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. May, P. (2006). Englisch-Hörverstehen am Ende der Grundschulzeit. In W. Bos & M. Pietsch (Eds.), KESS 4—Kompetenzen und Einstellungen von Schülerinnen und Schülern am Ende der Jahrgangsstufe 4 in Hamburger Grundschulen (pp. 203–224). Münster: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  31. Monk, D. H., & King, J. (1994). Multi-level teacher resource effects on pupil performance in secondary Mathematics and Science: The role of teacher subject-matter preparation. In R. Ehrenberg (Ed.), Contemporary policy issues: Choices and consequences in education (pp. 29–58). Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.Google Scholar
  32. Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O, Foy, P., & Arora, A. (2012). TIMSS 2011 international results in mathematics. TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA, USA, and International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) IEA Secretariat Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Retrieved June 30, 2017, from http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2011/downloads/T11_IR_Mathematics_FullBook.pdf.
  33. Ní Ríordáin, M., Paolucci, C., & Dwyer, L. M. (2017). An examination of the professional development needs of out-of-field mathematics teachers. Teacher and Teacher Education, 64, 162–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Olitsky, S. (2007). Facilitating identity formation, group membership and learning in science classrooms: What can be learned from out-of-field teaching in an urban school? Science Education, 91, 201–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Porsch, R., & Wendt, H. (2015). Welche Rolle spielt der Studienschwerpunkt von Sachunterrichtslehrkräften für ihre Selbstwirksamkeit und die Leistungen ihrer Schülerinnen und Schüler? In H. Wendt, T. Stubbe, K. Schwippert & W. Bos (Eds.), IGLU & TIMSS. 10 Jahre international vergleichende Schulleistungsforschung in der Grundschule. Vertiefende Analysen zu IGLU und TIMSS 2001 bis 2011 (pp. 161–183). Münster: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  36. Porsch, R., & Wendt, H. (2017). Mathematikunterricht und Studienschwerpunkte der Lehrkräfte: Gibt es Auswirkungen auf die Mathematikleistungen von Grundschülerinnen und -schülern? Nationale Befunde aus TIMSS 2011. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 45(2), 115–135.Google Scholar
  37. Richter, D., Kuhl, P., Haag, N., & Pant, H. A. (2013). Aspekte der Aus- und Fortbildung von Mathematik- und Naturwissenschaftslehrkräften im Ländervergleich. In H. A. Pant, P. Stanat, U. Schroeders, A. Roppelt, T. Siegle & C. Pöhlmann (Eds.), IQB-Ländervergleich 2012. Mathematische und naturwissenschaftliche Kompetenzen am Ende der Sekundarstufe I (pp. 367–390). Münster: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  38. Schüler, S., Rösken-Winter, B., Weißenrieder, J., Lambert, A., & Römer, M. (2015). Characteristics of out-of-field teaching: Teacher beliefs and competencies. In K. Krainer & Nada Vondrová (Eds.), CERME 9. Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 3254–3261). Retrieved June 30, 2017, from http://www.mathematik.unidortmund.de/~prediger/ERME/CERME9_Proceedings_2015.pdf.
  39. Tella, A. (2008). Teacher variables as predictors of academic achievement of primary school pupils mathematics. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 1(1), 16–33.Google Scholar
  40. Tiedemann, J., & Billmann-Mahecha, E. (2007). Macht das Fachstudium einen Unterschied? Zur Rolle der Lehrerexpertise für Lernerfolg und Motivation in der Grundschule. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 53(1), 58–73.Google Scholar
  41. Tsai, L.-T., & Yang, C.-C. (2015). Hierarchical effects of school-, classroom-, and student-level factors on the science performance of eighth-grade Taiwanese students. International Journal of Science Education, 37(8), 1166–1181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ziegler, C., & Richter, D. (2017). Der Einfluss fachfremden Unterrichts auf die Schülerleistung: Können Unterschiede in der Klassenzusammensetzung zur Erklärung beitragen? Unterrichtswissenschaft, 45(2), 136–155.Google Scholar
  43. Zuzovsky, R. (2009). Teachers’ qualifications and their impact on student achievement: Findings from TIMSS 2003 data for Israel. In M. v. Davier & D. Hastedt (Eds.), Issues and methodologies in large-scale assessments (IERI Monograph Series, Vol. 2, pp. 37–62). Hamburg/Princeton: IEA-ETS Research Institute.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MünsterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.University of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations