Advertisement

Caste, Outcaste and Recasting Social Justice: Trajectories of Social Development

  • G. C. Pal
Chapter

Abstract

The chapter highlights the historical evolution of caste, its distinct features and the way caste governs intergroup relationships to affect socio-economic well-being. It examines the preventive and protective measures by the state to address the social disabilities around caste and their implications for intergroup behaviours and socio-economic development. It highlights social inequalities among caste groups on various developmental indicators to understand interlinkages between caste and unequal development. It examines the persistence of social distance and discrimination based on caste identity, the spectrum of caste experiences and emerging conflicts around caste question. It uses socio-psychological frameworks to explicate how caste-related oppressive behaviours like discrimination, exclusion, violence and atrocities around caste remain unabated despite preventive, protective and punitive measures. Lastly, it discusses implications of these behaviours for social development of the low caste groups.

Keywords

Caste and social discrimination Social disabilities Caste violence Exclusion and Unequal development 

References

  1. Abrams, D., Hogg, M., & Marques, J. (Eds.). (2005). The social psychology of inclusion and exclusion. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  2. AISHE. (2011–2012). All India survey in higher education. New Delhi: MHRD, Government of India.Google Scholar
  3. Akerlof, G. (1976). The economics of caste and rat race and other woeful tales. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 90(4), 599–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  5. Antonio, A. L. (2001). Diversity and the influence of friendship groups in college. The Review of Higher Education, 25(1), 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arrow, K. J. (1973). The theory of discrimination. In O. A. Rees (Ed.), Discrimination in labour markets (pp. 3–33). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Banks, J. A. (2007). Educating citizens in a multicultural society (2nd ed.). New York: Teacher College Press.Google Scholar
  8. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachment as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker, G. S. (1957). The economics of discrimination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  10. Beteille, A. (1996). Caste, class and power: Hanging patterns of stratification in Tanjore Village. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Blumer, H. (1958). Race prejudice as a sense of group position. The Pacific Sociological Review, 1(1), 3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CES. (2014). India exclusion report 2013–14. New Delhi: Centre for Equity Studies CES.Google Scholar
  13. Damodaran, H. (2008). New capitalists: Caste, business, and industry in a modern nation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Darity, W., Patrick, M., & Stewart, J. (2006). The economics of identity: The origin and persistence of racial identity norms. Journal of Economics Behaviour and Organisation, 60(3), 283–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Das, V. (1982). Structure and cognition: Aspects of Hindu caste and rituals. Bombay: Manohar Publication.Google Scholar
  16. Deb, S. (2016). Social development index 2016. In K. Kannabiran & A. Hans (Eds.), India: Social development report 2016 (pp. 299–333). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Desai, S., & Dubey, A. (2011). Caste in 21st century India, competing narratives. Economic and Political Weekly, 46(11), 40–49.Google Scholar
  18. Deshpande, A. (2011). The grammar of caste: Economic discrimination in contemporary India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dirks, N. (2001). Caste of mind: Colonialism and the making of modern India. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dumont, L. (1980). Homo hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  21. Fuller, C. J. (1997). Caste today. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gill, K. (2012). Promoting ‘inclusiveness’: A framework for assessing India’s flagship social welfare programmes (Social Policy Working Paper Series-2). New Delhi: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  23. Government of India. (2016). The Economic Survey 2015–16. New Delhi: Ministry of Finance, Government of India.Google Scholar
  24. Gupta, D. (2005). Caste and politics: Identity over system. Annual Review of Anthropology, 34, 409–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gurumurthy, S. (2009). Is caste an economic development vehicle? The Hindu, January 19. Retrieved on May 22, 2017, from http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/Is-caste-an-economic-development-vehicle/article16354348.ece
  26. Himes, J. S. (1980). Conflict and conflict management. Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hoff, K., & Pandey, P. (2006). Discrimination, social identity and durable inequalities. The American Economic Review, 96(2), 206–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hogan, D. E., & Mallott, M. (2005). Changing racial prejudice through diversity education. Journal of College Student Development, 46(2), 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. IDSN. (2011). Dalits’ access to education (Briefing Paper). International Dalit Solidarity Network, UK.Google Scholar
  30. Jaspal, R. (2011). Caste, social stigma and identity processes. Psychology Developing Societies, 23(1), 27–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jodhka, S. S. (2012). Caste. New Delhi: Oxford University press.Google Scholar
  32. Jodhka, S. S. (2015). Caste in contemporary India. New Delhi: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Jodhka, S. S. & Sirari, T. (2012). In the footsteps of Ambedkar: Mobility, identity and Dalit initiatives for change (Working Paper Series, Vol. 6, No. 1). New Delhi: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.Google Scholar
  34. Kakar, S. (1992). The analyst and the mystic: Psychoanalytic reflections on religion and mysticism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Kapur, D., Prasad, C. B., Pritchett, L., & Babu, S. D. (2010). Rethinking inequality: SCs in Uttar Pradesh in the market reform era. Economic and Political Weekly, 45(35), 39–49.Google Scholar
  36. Kremer, J., & Schermbrucker, I. (2006). Difference and the psychology of conflict. Psychologists, 19(3), 160–163.Google Scholar
  37. Kumbhar, S. (2016). Everyday Dalit experiences of living and the Dalits. Economic and Political Weekly, 51(35), 13–15.Google Scholar
  38. Mahalingam, R. (2007). Beliefs about chastity, machismo, and caste identity: A cultural psychology of gender. Sex Roles, 56(3–4), 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mallick, N., & Malik, B. B. (2016). Sociology of exclusion: Dalits in East Uttar Pradesh. Social Change, 46(2), 214–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Modi, I. (2015). Social exclusion and inequality: Challenges before a developing society. Sociological Bulletin, 64(1), 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nambissan, G. B. (2010). Exclusion and discrimination in schools: Experiences of Dalit children. In S. Thorat & K. S. Newman (Eds.), Blocked by caste: Economic discrimination in modern India (pp. 253–286). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. National Crime Records Bureau. (1995–2015). Crime in India. New Delhi: National Crime Records Bureau, and Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.Google Scholar
  43. National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). (2004). Report on Prevention of atrocities against scheduled castes. New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  44. NCAER. (2014). India Human Development Survey (IHDS-2). New Delhi: National Council for Applied Economic Research and the University of Maryland.Google Scholar
  45. Neelakandan, S. M., & Patil, S. M. (2012). Complexities of inclusion and exclusion: Dalit students and higher education in India. Journal of Social Inclusion, 3(1), 86.Google Scholar
  46. Nitisha. (2017). Effects of caste system in India. Your Article Library. Retrieved on May 22, 2017, from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/caste/ill-effects-of-caste-system-in-india/47389/
  47. Nohrlind, R. (2009). Caste-based discrimination in South Asia. Copenhagen: International Dalit Solidarity Network.Google Scholar
  48. NSSO. (2014). Social consumption in India: Education, 71st Round, National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO). New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  49. Pal, G. C. (2012). Mapping caste-based atrocities in Uttar Pradesh. Project Report No. 49. New Delhi: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.Google Scholar
  50. Pal, G. C. (2014). Access to justice: Social ostracism obstructs efforts by Dalits for equal rights. Journal of Social Inclusion Studies, 1(1), 122–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pal, G. C. (2015a). Social exclusion and mental health: The unexplored aftermath of caste-based discrimination and violence. Psychology & Developing Societies, 27(2), 189–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pal, G. C. (2015b). Pre-School education, access to knowledge and social exclusion: Insights from the ICDS. International conference on Education: Domination, emancipation and dignity, 14–16 December, Bangalore: Azim Premji University.Google Scholar
  53. Pal, G. C. (2015c). Blurring the caste boundaries. Dalit Ashmita, 5(19–20), 25–29.Google Scholar
  54. Pal, G. C. (2016a). Caste and access to public service: ‘Intensified’ disadvantage. Economic & Political Weekly, Special Article, 51(31), 102–107.Google Scholar
  55. Pal, G. C. (2016b). Educational institutions, exclusionary bias and psychological impacts. Paper presented at the International Conference on Comparative educational destinies: Visions, dilemmas and challenges, 19–21 November 2016, Tirupati: Sri Venkateswara University.Google Scholar
  56. Pal, G. C. (2018). Caste-gender intersectionality and atrocities in Haryana: Emerging patterns and State responses. Journal of Social Inclusion Studies, 4(1), 30–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pal, G. C., & Arjun, B. B. K. (2013). Caste discrimination in the premier institutes of higher education in India: A study of Dalit students’ suicide (Discussion Paper Series). New Delhi: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.Google Scholar
  58. Pal, G. C., & Lal, L. D. (2010). Mapping caste-based atrocities in India: Status report (Project Report No 39). New Delhi: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.Google Scholar
  59. Pal, G. C., & Lal, L. D. (2011). Mapping caste-based atrocities in India with a special focus on Dalit women (Project Report No 41). New Delhi: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.Google Scholar
  60. Pal, G. C., Sukumar, N., & Lal, L. D. (2010). Atrocities against Dalits: Emerging trends (Project Report No. 37). Submitted to Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India, New Delhi: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.Google Scholar
  61. Pathak, A. (2006). Modernity, globalization and identity: Towards a reflective quest. New Delhi: Aakar Books.Google Scholar
  62. Prakash, A. (2015). Dalit capital: State, markets and civil society in urban India. New Delhi: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Quillian, L. (2006). New approaches to understanding racial prejudice and discrimination. Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 299–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Raheja, G. G. (1989). Centrality, mutuality, and hierarchy: Shifting aspects of inter-caste relationships in North India. Contribution to Indian Sociology, 23(10), 79–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rajalakshmi, T. K. (2011). Burning issue, Frontline, February 25, 43–45.Google Scholar
  66. Ramchandran, V., & Naorem, T. (2013). What it means to be a Dalit or Tribal child in our school: A synthesis of a six-state qualitative study. Economic & Political Weekly, 48(44), 43–52.Google Scholar
  67. Rummel, R. J. (1977). Understanding conflict and war: Conflict in perspective (Vol. 3). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  68. Sabharwal, N. S., & Malish, C. M. (2016). Student diversity and civic learning in higher education in India (Research Paper Series No. 3) New Delhi: CPRHE, NUEPA.Google Scholar
  69. Sharma, K. L. (1999). Social inequality in India: Profiles of caste, class and social mobility. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.Google Scholar
  70. Singh, A. K. (2013). In S. Deshpande & U. Zacharia (Eds.)., Beyond inclusion: The practice of equal access in Indian higher education Defying the odds: The triumphs and tragedies of Dalit and Adivasi students in higher education (pp. 174–204). New Delhi: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Singhari, S., & Madheswaran, S. (2016). Social exclusion and caste discrimination in public and private sectors in India: A decomposition analysis (Working Paper Series, 361). Bangalore: Institute for Social and Economic Change.Google Scholar
  72. Srinivas, M. M. (1962). Caste in modern India and other essays. Bombay: Media Promoter and Publishers.Google Scholar
  73. Sukumar, N. (2013). The Quota’s children: The perils of getting educated. In S. Deshpande & U. Zacharia (Eds.), Beyond inclusion: The practice of equal access in Indian higher education (pp. 205–221). New Delhi: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Sullivan, E. (2002). Social exclusion, social identity and social capital: Reuniting the global, the local and the personal (Discussion Paper). Milton Keynes: De Montfort University.Google Scholar
  75. Tajfel, H. (1982). Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  77. Taylor, M., & Pettigrew, T. (2000). Prejudice. In E. F. Borgatta & R. J. Montgomery (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Sociology (Vol. 2 9, pp. 2242–2248), New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  78. Thorat, S. (2018). Untouchability, discrimination and atrocities against Dalits in Maharashtra: Magnitude, causes and solutions. Pune: Sugava Parhashan.Google Scholar
  79. Thorat, S., & Newman, K. (Eds.). (2010). Blocked by caste: Economic discrimination in modern India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  80. UNDP. (2015). India and the MDGs: Towards a sustainable future for all. New York: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
  81. Visvanathan, S. (2016). A story to two caste struggles. The Hindu, p. 10, September 28, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  82. Weber, M. (1946). From Max Weber: Essays in sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Wills, T. A. (1981). Downward comparison principles in social psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 90(2), 245–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. C. Pal
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Dalit StudiesNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations