Advertisement

Prosociality for Societal Development

  • Lilavati KrishnanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter points out the need for extending the conceptualization of prosociality to include development, and that of societal development to make a place for prosociality. The major views related to development are summarized, and social-psychological research on prosociality is briefly reviewed. Traditional views of ‘giving’, as well as contemporary studies of prosocial behaviour in India are described. Conceptual links are then proposed between prosociality and societal development, through cultural characteristics, socialization, economic values, prosocial values and well-being. It is emphasized that economic and prosocial values can work in a complementary and not contradictory relationship, towards the goal of welfare and well-being as part of societal development.

Keywords

Prosociality Societal development Cooperativeness Corporate social responsibility (CSR) Social norms in prosocial behaviour 

References

  1. Agarwal, S. (2010). Daan and other giving traditions in India: The forgotten pot of gold. New Delhi: AccountAid™.Google Scholar
  2. Aknin, L. B., Barrington-Leigh, C. P., Dunn, E. W., Helliwell, J. F., Burns, J., Biswas- Diener, R., Kemeza, I., Nyende, P., Ashton-James, C. E., & Norton, M. I. (2013). Prosocial spending and well-being: Cross-cultural evidence for a psychological universal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(4), 635–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aydinli, A., Bender, M., & Chasiotis, A. (2013). Helping and volunteering across cultures: Determinants of prosocial behavior. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 5(3).  https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1118.
  4. Baker, W. E. (2000). What is social capital, and why should you care about it? In W. E. Baker (Ed.), Achieving success through social capital: Tapping the hidden resources in your personal and business networks (Chap. 1, pp. 1–25). San Francisco: Jossey–Bass.Google Scholar
  5. Bar-Tal, D. (1976). Prosocial behavior: Theory and research. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Batson, C. D. (2011). Altruism in humans. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Batson, C. D., Dyck, J. L., Brandt, J., Batson, J. G., Powell, A. L., McMaster, M. R., & Griffitt, C. (1988). Five studies testing two new egoistic alternatives to the empathy- altruism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(1), 52–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berkowitz, L., & Daniels, L. R. (1963). Responsibility and dependency. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(5), 429–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkowitz, L., & Daniels, L. R. (1964). Affecting the salience of the social responsibility norm: Effects of past help on the response to dependency relationships. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68(3), 275–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhargava, P., & Gupta, P. (1978). Sharing behaviour in children and altruism-egoism in their mothers. Peace Research, 10(2), 47–54.Google Scholar
  11. Bhikkhu Bodhi (Ed.). (2013). Dana: The practice of giving. Selected essays. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition). http://www.accessroinsight.org/lib/authors/various/wheel367.html
  12. Brownell, C. A. (2013). Early development of prosocial behavior: Current perspectives. Infancy, 18(1), 1–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cantegreil, M., Chanana, D., & Kattumuri, R. (Eds.). (2013). Revealing Indian philanthropy. London: Alliance Publishing Trust, UBS AG.Google Scholar
  14. Carlo, C., Eisenberg, N., Troyer, D., Switzer, G., & Speer, A. L. (1991). The altruistic personality: In what contexts is it apparent? Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/psychfacpub/192
  15. Chadha, N., & Misra, G. (2004). Patterns of prosocial reasoning in Indian children. Psychology and Developing Societies, 16(2), 159–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chadha, N., & Misra, G. (2006). Prosocial reasoning and behaviour among Indian children: A naturalistic study. Psychology and Developing Societies, 18(2), 167–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cialdini, R. B., Brown, S. L., Lewis, B. P., Luce, C., & Neuberg, S. I. (1997). Reinterpreting the empathy- altruism relationship: When one into one equals oneness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(3), 481–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. CII (Confederation of Indian Industries), PwC. (2013). Handbook on corporate social responsibility in India. www.pwc.in
  19. Clark, M. S. (Ed.). (1991). Prosocial behavior. Review of personality and social psychology. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Cole, D. (2015). You will never guess the most charitable nation in the world. NPR Org. http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/11/28/457101304/youll-never-guess-the-most-charitable-nation-in-the-world
  21. Cowen, T. (2015, August 14). Effective altruism: Where charity and rationality meet. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/16/upshot/effective-altruism-where-charity-and-rationality-meet.html
  22. Daniel, E., Bilgin, A. S., Brezina, I., Strohmeier, C. E., & Vainre, M. (2015). Values and helping behaviour: A study in four cultures. International Journal of Psychology, 50(3), 186–192.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12086. Epub 2014 Jul 18.
  23. Darley, J. M., & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4, Pt.1), 377–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dawkins, R. (1976). The selfish gene. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. de Guzman, M. R., Anh Do, K., & Mun Tok, C. (2014). The cultural contents of children’s prosocial behaviours. Faculty Publications, University of Nebraska, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies. Paper 103. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/famconfacpub/103
  26. Dovidio, J. F. (1984). Helping behavior and altruism: An empirical and conceptual overview. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 17, pp. 362–427). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Egas, M., & Riedl, A. (2008). The economics of altruistic punishment and the maintenance of cooperation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275(1637), 871–878.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2007.1558. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/
  28. Eisenberg, N. (1986). Altruistic emotion, cognition and behaviour. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  29. Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. (2003). The nature of human altruism. Nature, 425, 785–791.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02043.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Fehr, E., & Gächter, S. (2002). Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature, 415, 137–140.  https://doi.org/10.1038/415137a.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Feigin, S., Owens, G., & Goodyear-Smith, F. (2014). Theories of human altruism: A systematic review. Annals of Neuroscience and Psychology, 1, 1–9. Retrieved from http://www.vipoa.org/neuropsycho
  32. Foster, G. M. (1965). Peasant society and the image of ‘limited good’. American Anthropologist New Series, 67(2), 293–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fukuyama, F. (2001). Social capital, civil society and development. Third World Quarterly, 22(1), 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25(2), 161–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Greenberg, M. S., & Shapiro, S. P. (1971). Indebtedness: An adverse aspect of asking for and receiving help. Sociometry, 34(2), 290–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gupta, P. (1982). Altruism or reciprocity: Sharing behaviour in Hindu kindergarten children. Psychological Studies, 27(2), 68–72.Google Scholar
  38. Hans, V. B. (2014). Social capital in India: A cause of concern? https://ssrn.com/abstract=2382399 or  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2382399
  39. Haq, M.-u. (1999). Human development in South Asia 1999 – The crisis of governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hilbig, B. E., Glockner, A., & Zettler, I. (2014). Personality and prosocial behavior: Linking basic traits and social value orientations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 107(3), 529–539.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036074. Epub 2014 Jul 14.
  41. Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Inkeles, A., & Smith, D. H. (1974). Becoming modern: Individual change in six developing countries. Cambridge, MA, US: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jeffries, V. (1998). Virtue and the altruistic personality. Sociological Perspectives, 41(1), 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Karmakar, R., & Ghosh, A. (2012). Altruistic behaviour of adolescents of different regions of India. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 38(1), 44–53.Google Scholar
  46. Kassam, M., Handy, F., & Jansons, E. (2016). The practice of philanthropy. In M. Kassam, F. Handy, & E. Jansons (Eds.), Philanthropy in India: Promise to practice (pp. 1–35). New Delhi: Sage India.Google Scholar
  47. Keller, H., & Kärtner, J. (2013). Development – The cultural solution of universal developmental tasks. In M. J. Gelfand, C. Chiu, & Y. Hong (Eds.), Advances in culture and psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 63–116). New York: Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Keltner, D., Kogan, A., Piff, P. K., & Saturn, S. R. (2014) The sociocultural appraisals, values, and emotions (SAVE) framework of prosociality: Core processes from gene to meme. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 425460. Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199930449.003.0002
  49. Klimecki, O. M, Mayer, S. V., Jusyte, A., Scheef, J., & Schonenberg, M. (2016). Empathy promotes altruistic behaviour in economic interactions. Scientific Reports, 6, 31961. www.nature.com/scientific reports/.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep31961.
  50. Konsky, C., Eguchi, M., Blue, J., & Kapoor, S. (1999–2000). Individualist-collectivist values: American, Indian and Japanese cross-cultural study. Intercultural Communication Studies, 9 (1), 69–83.Google Scholar
  51. Koster, M., Schumacher, N., & Kartner, J.(2015). A cultural perspective on prosocial development. In Human Ethology Bulletin, Proceedings of the XXII ISHE conference, pp. 71–82.Google Scholar
  52. Krebs, D. L. (2015). Prosocial behaviour. In V. Ziegler-Hill, L. M. Welling, & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on social psychology (pp. 231–242). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Krishnan, L. (1984). Immediate- delayed-reward preference, generosity, and reactions to aid in a scarcity culture The Journal of Social Psychology, 122(1), 33–39.Google Scholar
  54. Krishnan, L. (1988a). Parental acceptance-rejection and attitudes to helping: A study of Indian mothers. Psychological Studies, 33(3), 185–193.Google Scholar
  55. Krishnan, L. (1988b). Recipient need and anticipation of reciprocity in prosocial exchange. The Journal of Social Psychology, 128(2), 223–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Krishnan, L. (1989). The effect of chance/effort-based and small/large donor resources on prosocial exchange. In J. P. Forgas & J. M. Innes (Eds.), Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective (pp. 321–328). North-Holland: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  57. Krishnan, L. (2005). Concepts of social behaviour in India: Daan and distributive justice. Psychological Studies, 50(1), 21–31.Google Scholar
  58. Krishnan, L. (2013). Deservingness in justice and ‘giving’. In G. Misra (Ed.), Psychology and psychoanalysis (pp. 915–933). New Delhi: Centre for Studies in Civilizations.Google Scholar
  59. Krishnan, L. (2017). The role of resource, reciprocity, recipient need, and relationship in prosocial behaviour: A survey. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  60. Krishnan, L., & Carment, D. W. (1979). Reactions to help:, reciprocity, responsibility and reactance. European Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9, 435–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Krishnan, L., & Manoj, V. R. (2008). ‘Giving’ as a theme in the Indian psychology of values. In K. Ramakrishna Rao, A. C. Paranjpe, & A. K. Dalal (Eds.), Handbook of Indian psychology (pp. 363–385). New Delhi: Foundation Books, an imprint of Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Krishnan, L., Sharma, N. K., & Sinha, A. K. (1986). Helping and recipient behaviour in the Indian society. Unpublished report, ICSSR-sponsored Project. ICSSR, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  63. L’Armand, K., & Pepitone, A. (1975). Helping to reward another person: A cross-cultural analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31(2), 189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Laidlaw, J. (2002). A free gift makes no friends. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 6(4), 617–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Leman, P. J. (2005). Authority and moral reasons: Parenting style and children’s perceptions of adult rule justifications. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(4), 265–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Levine, R. V., Norenzayan, A., & Philbecker, K. (2001). Cross-cultural differences in helping strangers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(5), 543–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Madnawat, A. V. (1986). Altruism in Hindus and Sikhs. Indian Psychological Review, 30(3), 26–31.Google Scholar
  68. Madsen, M. C. (1971). Developmental and cross-cultural differences in the cooperation and competitive behavior of young children. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2, 365–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mathur, A., Singh, K., Chawla, K., Raghavan, N., Gandhi, R., Gandhi, S., & Krishnan, L. (1983). Generosity and reciprocity in a rural Indian setting. The Journal of Social Psychology, 121(1), 147–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mauss, M. (1966). The Gift: Forms and functions of exchange in archaic societies. London: Cohen & West Ltd.Google Scholar
  71. McClelland, D. C. (1975). Power: The inner experience. Oxford: Irvington.Google Scholar
  72. McNeely, B. L., & Meglino, B. M. (1994). The role of dispositional and situational antecedents in prosocial organizational behavior: An examination of the intended beneficiaries of prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(6), 836–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meier, S. (2007). A survey of economic theories and field evidence on prosocial behaviour. In B. S. Frey & A. Strutzer (Eds.), Economics and psychology: A promising new cross- disciplinary field (pp. 3–51). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  74. Michaels, A., & Pierce, P. (1997). Gift and return gift, greeting and return greeting in India. On a consequential footnote by Marcel Mauss. Numen, 44(3), 242–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Miller, J. G., & Bersoff, D. M. (1992). Culture and moral judgment: How are conflicts between justice and interpersonal responsibilities resolved ? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(4), 541–554.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Miller, J. G., Bersoff, D. M., & Harwood, R. L. (1990). Perceptions of social responsibilities in India and in the United States: Moral imperatives or personal decisions ? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(1), 33–47.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. L. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science New Series, 244(4907), 933–938.Google Scholar
  78. Misra, N., & Yadav, A. (2015). Gender differences in prosocial behaviour in Indian youth. International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 3(8), 154–161.Google Scholar
  79. Mukherjee, S., & Sahay, A. (2014). Simultaneous evaluation of pro-self and prosocial bonus schemes: Implications for newer management policies towards social betterment. Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Working Paper Series No. 2014-03-13, 1–18.Google Scholar
  80. Mukherjee, S., Srinivasan, N., & Manjaly, J. A. (2014). Global processing fosters donations toward charity appeals framed in an approach orientation. Cognitive Processing, 15(3), 391–396.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-014-0602-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Nadler, A., & Fisher, J. D. (1986). The role of threat to self-esteem and perceived control in recipient reactions to help: Theory development and empirical validation. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 81–122). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  82. Oliner, S. P., & Oliner, P. M. (1988). The altruistic personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  83. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Padilla-Walker, L. M. (2014). Parental socialization of prosocial behaviour: A multidimensional approach. In L. M. Padilla-Walker & G. Carlo (Eds.), Prosocial development: A multidimensional approach (pp. 131–155). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pandey, J. (1979). Effects of benefactor and recipient status on helping behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology, 108(2), 171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Penner, L. A., Dovidio, J. F., Piliavin, J. A., & Schroeder, D. A. (2005). Prosocial behaviour : Multilevel perspectives. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 14.1–14.28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Parry, J. (1986). The gift, the Indian gift and the ‘Indian Gift’. Man New Series, 21(3), 453–473.Google Scholar
  88. Pearce, P. L., & Amato, P. R. (1980). A taxonomy of helping: A multidimensional scaling analysis. Social Psychology Quarterly, 43(4), 363–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pepitone, E. A. (Ed.). (1985). Children in cooperation and competition: Toward a developmental social psychology. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  90. Radke-Yarrow, M., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1984). Roots, motives, and patterns in children’s prosocial behavior. In E. Staub, D. Bar-Tal, J. Karylowski, & J. Reykowski (Eds.), Development and maintenance of prosocial behaviour: International perspectives on positive morality (pp. 81–99). New York/London: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Raheja, G. G. (1988). The poison in the gift: Ritual, prestation, and the dominant caste in a North Indian village. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  92. Rand, A., & Branden, N. (1964). The virtue of selfishness: A new concept of egoism. London: Signet/Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  93. Rao, T. V. (2015). Effective people. Gurgaon: Random House Publishers India.Google Scholar
  94. Ricard, M. (2013). Altruism: The power of compassion to change yourself and the world (trans: C. Mandell and S. Gordon). London: Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
  95. Rohner, R. P. (1984). Handbook for the study of parental acceptance and rejection (Rev. ed.). Storrs: Center for the Study of Parental Acceptance-Rejection/University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  96. Rushton, J. P., Chrisjohn, R. D., & Fekken, G. C. (1981). The altruistic personality and the self-report altruism scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 2(4), 293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schroeder, D. A., Dovidio, J. F., Sibicki, M. E., Matthews, L. L., & Allen, J. L. (1988). Empathic concern and helping behaviour: Egoism or altruism? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24(4), 333–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schwartz, S., & Bilsky, W. (1990). Towards a theory of the universal content and structure of values: Extensions and cross-cultural replications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(5), 872–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Seers, D. (1969). The meaning of development. IDS Communication 44, Institute of Development Studies. International Development Review, 11(4), 3–4.Google Scholar
  100. Sen, A. (1987). The standard of living: The Tanner lectures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Seth, I. R., & Gupta, P. (1983). Altruism in Hindus and Muslims. Psychological Studies, 28(2), 69–73.Google Scholar
  102. Seth, I. R., & Gupta, P. (1984). Religion, alter situation and altruism. Journal of Psychological Researches, 28(2), 107–1113.Google Scholar
  103. Sharabany, R., & Bar-Tal, D. (1982). Theories of the development of altruism: Review, comparison and integration. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 5(1), 49–80.  https://doi.org/10.1177/016502548200500103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sharma, N. K., & Sinha, A. K. (1986). A taxonomy of helping in the Indian setting. In L. Krishnan, N. K. Sharma, & A. K. Sinha (Eds.), Helping and recipient behaviour in the Indian society, Unpublished report, ICSSR-sponsored Project (pp. 270–285). New Delhi: ICSSR.Google Scholar
  105. Singer, T. (2015). How to build a caring economy. www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/01/how-to-build-a-caring-economy/
  106. Sinha, J. B. P. (1984). Towards partnership for relevant research in the third world. International Journal of Psychology, 19(1–4), 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sinha, A. K., & Jain, A. (1986). The effects of benefactor and beneficiary characteristics on helping behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology, 126(3), 361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Smith, A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stanton, E. A. (2007). The human development index: A history. Working paper series, No. 127. Amherst: Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  110. Staub, E., Bar-Tal, D., Karylowski, J., & Reykowski, J. (Eds.). (1984). Development and maintenance of prosocial behaviour: International perspectives on positive morality. New York/London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  111. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  112. Triandis, H. C., & Gelfand, M. J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(1), 118–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Trivers, R. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46(1), 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Young children selectively avoid helping people with harmful intentions. Child Development, 81(6), 1661–1669.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. van der Meulen, M., van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Crone, E. A. (2016). Neural correlates of prosocial behaviour: Compensating social exclusion in a four-player Cyberball game. PLoS One, 11(7), e0159045.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159045.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Williams, L. K. (1973). Some developmental correlates of scarcity. Human Relations, 26(1), 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wilson, E. O. (1978). On human nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Wispe, L. (1972). Positive forms of social behavior: An overview. Journal of Social Issues, 28(3), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Humanities & Social SciencesIIT KanpurKanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations