Brain—Through the Aeons

  • V. Srinivasa ChakravarthyEmail author


The last chapter was about the evolution of ideas of the brain. We have seen the war of two important views of brain, the “local vs. global” rivalry. We have noted Wernicke’s beautiful synthesis of our understanding of various aphasias: that simple functions (e.g., speech production) are localized in the brain, whereas more complex functions (e.g., speech in general) are performed by a coordinated action of several brain areas.


  1. Angier, N. (2011). So much more than plasma and poison. The New York Times.
  2. Butler, A. (1996). Comparative vertebrate neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Wiley-Liss.Google Scholar
  3. Campbell, N. A., & Reece, J. B. (2005). Biology (7th ed., p. 654). London: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  4. Cherniak, C. (1994). Component placement optimization in the brain. The Journal of Neuroscience, 14(4), 2418–2427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davis, H. (1996). Underestimating the rat’s intelligence. Cognitive Brain Research, 3, 291–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Diamond, M. C., Scheibel, A. B., Murphy Jr, G. M., & Harvey, T. (1985). On the brain of a scientist: Albert Einstein. Experimental neurology, 88(1), 198–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Emery, N. J., & Clayton, N. S. (2005). Evolution of the avian brain and intelligence. Current Biology, 15, R946–R950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fields, R. D. (2011). The hidden brain. Scientific American Mind, 22(2), 52–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fouts, R. S., & Fouts, D. H. (1996). Project Washoe FAQ. Washington: Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute, Central Washington University.Google Scholar
  10. Holloway, M. (1997). Profile: Jane Goodall—Gombe’s famous primate. Scientific American, 277(4), 42–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jarvis, E. D., Güntürkün, O., Bruce, L., Csillag, A., Karten, H., Kuenzel, W., et al. (2005). Avian brains and a new understanding of vertebrate brain evolution. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuhlenbeck, H. (1973). Central nervous system of vertebrates (Vol. 3, Part II). New York, NY: Arnold-Backlin-Strasse.Google Scholar
  13. Li, Y., Liu, Y., Li, J., Qin, W., Li, K., Yu, C., et al. (2009). Brain anatomical network and intelligence. PLoS Computational Biology, 5(5).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Macphail, E. (1982). Brain and intelligence in vertebrates. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  15. Mather, J., & Anderson, R. C. What behavior can we expect of octopuses? Cephalopod Articles.
  16. McCall, B. (2001). Rat dreams: Oh great—now we’ll have rat psychologists. Discover Magazine. From the October 2001 issue; published online October 1, 2001.
  17. McCrone, J. (1991). The ape that spoke; Language and the evolution of the human mind. New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
  18. Mead, C. (1989). Analog VLSI and neural systems (p. 102). Boston: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  19. Sait, S. M., & Youssef, H. (1996). VLSI physical design automation: Theory and practice. Singapore: World Scientific.Google Scholar
  20. Spangenberg, D. B., & Ham, R. G. (1960). The epidermal nerve net of hydra. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 143(2), 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. This website presents data that relates intelligence to anatomical metrics of the brain.
  22. Witelson, S. F., Kigar, D. L., & Harvey, T. (1999). The exceptional brain of Albert Einstein. The Lancet, 353, 2149–2153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations