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Calculation and Analysis of Aircraft Pollution Emissions in the Take-off Phase

  • Zhiqiang WeiEmail author
  • Xiaolan Han
  • Chung Joon
  • Sotto Aaron
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 459)

Abstract

Flight safety, economics and environmental protection are important factors to consider when designing an aircraft. The severity of the noise and emission output of the aircraft are heavily influenced by the manner in which the aircraft takes off. Aircraft manufacturers have developed and distributed their own software to calculate take-off parameters, departure paths, and noise data. However, this software does not have the capability to accurately estimate pollution output. Therefore, it is necessary to develop accurate mathematical models and software to calculate emission based on aircraft departure flight paths and take-off parameters. This paper presents aircraft pollution emission models based on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) database and Boeing Methods 2 (BM2) data. Methods for converting (Boeing Climb-Out Program) BCOP’s flight data to meet the calculation of emission are constructed in this paper. After then, the Aircraft Pollution Emission Analysis Tool (APEAT) was developed to calculate pollution emissions for various take-off conditions and parameters. This paper also proposes equivalent CO2 and weighted equivalent CO2 metrics to analyze the overall effect of take-off parameters on airport regional air quantity. Finally, some suggestions were made that can be used to reduce the aircraft pollution emissions in take-off phase.

Keywords

Takeoff performance Environmental impact Aviation emission Flight parameters Emission index 

Nomenclatures

Em

Emission quantity for the m pollutant (kg)

FF

Fuel flow (kg/s)

FF0

Corrected fuel flow in ISA, sea level condition (kg/s)

FFi

Engine fuel flow rate in the i flight phase (kg/s)

i

Flight phase

Im

Corrected emission index for the m pollutant

Im0

Sub-linear fitted emission index value for pollutant m

Imi

Emission index for pollutant m in phase i

m

Pollutant type

Ma

Mach number

n

number of engines

N1

Engine low pressure turbine speed

Pamb

Static pressure at the given altitude (Pa)

PV

Saturated vapour pressure (Pa)

ti

Time stamp for flight phase i (s)

V2

Take-off safe speed (kn)

δamb

Relative pressure ratio

Φ

Atmospheric relative humidity parameter

θamb

Relative temperature ratio

Acronyms

ATC

Air Traffic Control

AFM

Aircraft Flight Manual

APEAT

Aircraft Pollution Emission Analysis Tool

BCOP

Boeing Climb-Out Program

BM2

Boeing Method 2

BPS

Boeing Performance Software

CAEP

Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection

EC

External Costs

EI

Emission Inventory

EPR

Engine Pressure Ratio

ETS

Emissions Trading System

EOSID

Engine-Out Standard Instrument Departure

FMS

Flight Management System

GTP

Global Temperature Potential

GWP

Global Warming Potential

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

ISA

International Standard Atmosphere

LTO

Landing and Take-Off

MTOW

Maximum Take-Off Weight

NADP

Noise Abatement Departure Procedure

PEM

Performance Engineering Manual

PEP

Performance Engineering Package

RF

Radiative Forcing

RFI

Radiative Forcing Index

SID

Standard Instrument Departure

RMTT

Rated Maximum Take-off Thrust

WECD

Weighted Equivalent Carbon Dioxide

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study is funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21407174), the Fund of Aeronautics Science (Grant No. 20140267002) and Tianjin Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology (14JCQNJC0810). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of sponsoring organizations. We would like to thank MIMS lab of Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhiqiang Wei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiaolan Han
    • 1
  • Chung Joon
    • 2
  • Sotto Aaron
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Air Traffic ManagementCivil Aviation University of ChinaTianjinChina
  2. 2.Aerospace EngineeringRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

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