Advertisement

Introduction

  • Sallie YeaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter introduces the key argument of this book: there is often a significant disconnect between the experiences of individuals who are trafficked and the discursive construction and programmatic and policy responses to human trafficking. Discussing a similar kind of disconnect in the Bosnian context, Edward Snajdr [Dialectical Anthropology, 37(2), 229–256 (2013)] suggests that a ‘master narrative’ of human trafficking operates at the discursive level, often despite emerging counter-discourses that challenge the specific type of victim story that forms such a master narrative. By disclosing the discursive rendering of trafficking by the state and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), we can understand how master narratives about human trafficking are constructed and actualised in practice. In the Singapore context, the book argues that the government has effectively managed to reduce the numbers of prospective trafficking victims by narrowing the criteria for victim identification (the indicators of trafficking) to the most severe and unambiguous cases, particularly in the sex industry. The chapter outlines the theoretical bases for discussion in the book, as well as contextualising Singapore’s anti-trafficking responses in political and economic circumstances and broader regional trends in Southeast Asia.

References

  1. Agamben, G. (1998). Homo sacer: Sovereign power and bare life. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Agustin, L. (2007). Sex at the margins: Migration, labour markets and the rescue industry. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  3. Andrijasevic, R. (2007). Beautiful dead bodies: Gender, migration and representation in anti-trafficking campaigns. Feminist Review, 86, 24–44.Google Scholar
  4. Andrijasevic, R., & Mai, N. (2017). Trafficking in representations: Understanding the recurring appeal of victimhood and slavery in neoliberal times. Anti-Trafficking Review, No. 7.  https://doi.org/10.14197/atr.20121771.
  5. Ansell, N. (2010). The discursive construction of childhood and youth in AIDS interventions in Lesotho’s education sector: Beyond local-global dichotomies. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 28(5), 791–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aradau, C. (2004). The perverse politics of four-letter words: Risk and pity in the securitisation of human trafficking. Millennium, 33(2), 251–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradley, C., & Szablewska, N. (2016). Anti-trafficking (ill-)efforts: The legal regulation of women’s bodies and relationships in Cambodia. Social and Legal Studies, 25(4), 461–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brunovoskis, A., & Surtees, R. (2012). Out of sight? Approaches and challenges to the identification of trafficked persons. Olso: FAFO.Google Scholar
  9. Butler, J. (2009). Frames of war: When is life grievable? London: Verso.Google Scholar
  10. Casper, M. J., & Moore, L. J. (2009). Missing bodies: The politics of visibility. New York and London: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cumbers, A. (2005). Genuine renewal or pyrrhic victory? The scale politics of trade union recognition in the UK. Antipode, 37, 116–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cumbers, A., Routledge, P., & Natival, C. (2008). The entangled geographies of global justice networks. Progress in Human Geography, 32, 183–201.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132507084818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Shalit, A., Heynen, R., & van der Meulen, E. (2014). Human trafficking and media myths: Federal funding, communication strategies, and Canadian anti-trafficking programs. Canadian Journal of Communication, 39(3), 385–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Doezema, J. (2010). Sex slaves and discourse masters: The construction of trafficking. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  15. Foucault, M. (1975). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison (A. Sheridan, Trans.). London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  16. Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings. Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  17. Foucault, M. (1984). The Foucault reader. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  18. Frederick, J. (2004). The myth of Nepal-to-India sex trafficking: Its creation, its maintenance, and its influence on anti-trafficking interventions. In K. Kempadoo et al. (Eds.), Trafficking and prostitution reconsidered: New perspectives on migration, sex work and human rights. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. GAATW. (2007). Collateral damage. Bangkok: GAATW.Google Scholar
  20. Gallagher, A., & Pearson, E. (2008). Detention of trafficked persons in shelters: A legal and policy analysis. La Strada International.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1239745.
  21. Gorman, C. S. (2017). Redefining refugees: Interpretive control and the bordering work of legal categorisation in U.S. Asylum law. Political Geography, 58, 36–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gulati, G. J. (2012). Representing trafficking: Media in the United States, Great Britain and Canada. In A. Brysk & Y. Choi-Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Human trafficking and human rights: Rethinking contemporary slavery. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hathaway, J. C. (2008). The human rights quagmire of human trafficking. Virginia Journal of International Law, 49, 1.Google Scholar
  24. Herbert, S. (2000). For ethnography. Progress in Human Geography, 24(4), 550–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hyndman, J. (2010). The question of ‘the political’ in critical geopolitics: Querying the ‘child soldier’ in the ‘war on terror’. Political Geography, 29(5), 247–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hyndman, J., & Mountz, A. (2008). Another brick in the wall? Neo-refoulement and the externalisation of asylum in Australia and Europe. Government and Opposition, 43(2), 249–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. International Labour Organisation. (n.d.). Forced labour, modern slavery and human trafficking. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from May 22, 2018, from http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/lang%2D%2Den/index.htm
  28. Jahic, G., & Finckenauer, J. (2005). Representations and misrepresentations of human trafficking. Trends in Organized Crime, 8(3), 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Juris, J. S. (2004). Networked social movements: Global movements for global justice. In M. Castells (Ed.), The network society: Cross-cultural perspective. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  30. Juris, J. S. (2005). The new digital media and activist networking within anti-corporate social movements. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1, 143–158.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716204270338.Google Scholar
  31. Katz, C. (2007). Banal terrorism: Spatial fetishism and everyday insecurity. In D. Gregory & A. Pred (Eds.), Violent geographies: Fear, terror, and political violence (pp. 349–361). Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Kimm, S., & Sauer, B. (2010). Discourses on forced prostitution, trafficking in women, and football: A comparison of anti-trafficking campaigns during the World Cup 2006 and the European Championship 2008. Soccer and Society, 11(6), 815–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kitchin, R., & Hubbard, P. J. (1999). Guest editorial: Research, action and ‘critical’ geographies. Area, 31, 195–198.Google Scholar
  34. Lainez, N. (2010). Representing sex trafficking in Southeast Asia. In T. Zheng (Ed.), Sex trafficking, human rights and social justice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Latham, A. (2003). Urbanity, lifestyle and making sense of the new cultural urban economy: Notes from Auckland, New Zealand. Urban Studies, 40, P1699–P1724.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0042098032000106564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lawson, V. (2007). Geographies of care and responsibility. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(1), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lindquist, J. (2010). Images and evidence: Human trafficking, auditing, and the production of illicit markets in Southeast Asia. Public Culture, 22(2), 223–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lobasz, J. K. (2009). Beyond border security: Feminist approaches to human trafficking. Security Studies, 18(2), 319–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McDonald, K. (2002). From solidarity to fluidity: Social movements beyond ‘collective identity’—The case of globalisation conflicts. Social Movement Studies, 1, 109–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Megoran, N. (2006). For ethnography in political geography: Experiencing and imagining Ferghana Valley boundary closures. Political Geography, 25(6), 622–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mertes. (2002). Grassroots globalism. New Left Review, 17, 101–110.Google Scholar
  42. Molland, S. (2013). Tandem ethnography: On researching ‘trafficking’ and ‘anti-trafficking’. Ethnography, 14, 300–323.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1466138113491671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mountz, A. (2004). Embodying the nation-state: Canada’s response to human smuggling. Political Geography, 23(3), 323–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mountz, A. (2010). Seeking asylum. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mountz, A. (2011). Where asylum-seekers wait: Feminist counter-topographies of sites between states. Gender, Place & Culture, 18(3), 381–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mountz, A., & Hiemstra, N. (2012). Spatial strategies for rebordering human migration at sea. In T. M. Wilson & H. Donman (Eds.), A companion to border studies (pp. 455–472). London: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mountz, A., & Hiemstra, N. (2014). Chaos and crisis: Dissecting the spatiotemporal logics of contemporary migrations and state practices. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104(2), 382–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nieuwenhuys, C., & Pécoud, A. (2007). Human trafficking, information campaigns, and strategies of migration control. American Behavioral Scientist, 50(12), 1674–1695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. O’Connell Davidson, J., & Anderson, B. (2002). Trafficking—A demand-led problem? Part I: Review of evidence and debates. Stockholm, Sweden: Save the Children.Google Scholar
  50. Reid, H., & Taylor, B. (2000). Embodying ecological citizenship: Rethinking the politics of grassroots globalisation in the United States. Alternatives, 25, 439–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Riles, A. (2001). The network inside out. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  52. Routledge, P. (2003). Convergence space: Process geographies of grassroots globalisation networks. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 28(3), 333–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sharma, N. (2003). Travel agency: A critique of anti-trafficking campaigns. Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees, 21(3), 53–65.Google Scholar
  54. Sklair, L. (1995). Social movements and global capitalism. Sociology, 29, 495–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Small, J. L. (2012). Trafficking in truth: Media, sexuality, and human rights evidence. Feminist Studies, 38(2), 415–533.Google Scholar
  56. Snajdr, E. (2013). Beneath the master narrative: Human trafficking, myths of sexual slavery and ethnographic realities. Dialectical Anthropology, 37(2), 229–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Surtees, R. (2017). Moving on: Family and community reintegration amongst Indonesian trafficking victims. Washington, DC: NEXUS Institute.Google Scholar
  58. Tazreiter, C. (2015). Lifeboat politics in the Pacific: Affect and the ripples and shimmers of a migrant saturated future. Emotion, Space and Society, 16, 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. United States Department of State. (2017). Annual trafficking in persons report. Washington, DC: US DoS.Google Scholar
  60. UNODC. (n.d.). On trafficking of persons and smuggling of migrants. Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/index.html?ref=menuside.
  61. Walters, W. (2008). Bordering the sea: Shipping industries and the policing of stowaways. Borderlands, 7(3), 1–25.Google Scholar
  62. Wogan, P. (2004). Deep hanging out: Reflections on fieldwork and multi-sited Andean ethnography. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 11(1), 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yea, S. (2013). Social visits and special passes: The exploitation of migrant women in Singapore’s sex and nightlife entertainment sector. Singapore: Franciscan Sisters of Mary.Google Scholar
  64. Yea, S. (2015). Trafficked enough? Missing bodies, migrant labour exploitation and the classification of trafficking victims in Singapore. Antipode, 47, 1080–1100.  https://doi.org/10.1111/anti.12144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yea, S., & Chok, S. (2018). Unfreedom unbound: Contingency and co-production in migrant worker exploitation in Singapore. Work, Employment and Society, 32(5), 925–941.Google Scholar
  66. Yea, S., Balakrishnan, B., & Fordyce, D. (2018). A thousand and one days: Stories of migrant worker hardship in Singapore. Dhaka: Banglar Kanther Publications.Google Scholar
  67. Yea, S., Haque, R., & Fordyce, D. (2015). A thousand and one days: Stories of migrant worker hardship in Singapore. Dhaka: Banglar Kanther Publications.Google Scholar
  68. Yea, S., Mohsin, A. K. M., & Fordyce, D. (2013). A thousand and one days: Stories of migrant worker hardship in Singapore. Dhaka: Banglar Katha Publications.Google Scholar
  69. Yeoh, B. S. (2006). Bifurcated labour: The unequal incorporation of transmigrants in Singapore. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 97(1), 26–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social InquiryLa Trobe UniversityAlbury-WodongaAustralia

Personalised recommendations