Removal of Organic Pollutants from Industrial Wastewaters Treated by Membrane Techniques

  • M. Soniya
  • G. Muthuraman


Water is the most commonly used resource in the world. The world’s supply of sanitary water is limited and exposed to contamination. Increasing demands for water are required for cultivation, manufacturing, and urban development, but these are more important to control than the distribution of limited freshwater resources. Various industries use water for diverse processes and then discharge it back into the surroundings. In recent times, researchers have focused on effluent treatment by a variety of processes with low costs and high removal efficiency. This study examines the removal of contamination from industrial effluents by a liquid membrane method. Water is recovered and reused through the liquid membrane, which has significant ecological benefits and decreases the effects of wastewater discharge on environmental water quality. Financial and environmental benefits have been recognized in this recently developed liquid membrane method.


Recovery Effluent Water Environment Demand Liquid membrane 



Bulk aqueous liquid membrane


Bulk organic liquid membrane


Diffusion boundary layer


Flowing liquid membrane


Hollow fiber


Hollow fiber liquid membrane


Hollow fiber liquid membrane


Hybrid liquid membrane


Liquid-liquid extraction


Liquid membrane


Membrane based solvent extraction


Membrane based solvent stripping


Multi membrane hybrid system




  1. Alpoguz HK, Memon S, Ersoz M, Yy’lmaz M (2004) Transport kinetics of Hg2þ through bulk liquid membrane using calix[4]arene ketone derivative as carrier. Sep Sci Technol 39:799–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banat IM, Nigam P, Singh D, Marchant R (1996) Microbial decolourization of textile-dye-containing effluents. Bioresour Technol 58:217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Behrend O, Ax K, Schubert H (2000) Influence of continuous phase viscosity on emulsification by ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem 7(2):77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benjjar A, Hor M, Riri M, Eljaddi T, Kamal O, Lebrun L, Hlaibi M (2012) A new supported liquid membrane (SLM) with methyl cholate for facilitated transport of dichromate ions from mineral acids: parameters and mechanism relating to the transport. J Mater Environ Sci 3(5):826–839Google Scholar
  5. Chang SH, Teng TT, Norli I (2011) Optimization of Cu (II) Extraction from Aqueous Solutions by Soybean-Oil-Based Organic Solvent Using Response Surface Methodology. Water Air Soil Pollut 217:567–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chanukya BS, Rastogi NK (2013) Extraction of alcohol from wine and color extracts using liquid emulsion membrane. Sep Purif Technol 105(0):41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiou MS, Chuang GS (2006) Competitive adsorption of dye metanil yellow and RB15 in acid solutions on chemically cross-linked chitosan beads. Chemosphere 62:731–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eljaddi T, Kamal O, Benjjar A, Riri M, Elatmani MELH, Lebrun L, Hlaibi M (2014) New supported liquid membranes containing TBP and MC as carriers for the facilitated transport of cadmium ions from acidic mediums: Parameters and mechanism. J Mater Environ Sci 5(6):1994–1999Google Scholar
  9. Ersoz M (2007) Transport of mercury through liquid membranes containing calixarene carriers. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 134–135:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Floury J, Legrand J, Desrumaux A (2004) Analysis of a new type of high pressure homogeniser. Part B. Study of droplet break-up and recoalescence phenomena. Chem Eng Sci 59(6):1285–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hassan AA, Victor K, Nidal H (2013) Hybrid ion exchange – Pressure driven membrane processes in water treatment: A review. Sep Purif Technol 116:253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hou W, Papadopoulos KD (1996) Stability of waterin- oil-in-water type globules. Chem Eng Sci 51(22):5043–5051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jafari SM, Assadpoor E, He Y, Bhandari B (2008) Re-coalescence of emulsion droplets during high-energy emulsification. Food Hydrocoll 22(7):1191–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Katzung BG (1987) Basic and clinical pharmacology, 3rd edn. Appleton and Lange, New York, pp 734–735Google Scholar
  15. Kemperman AJB (1995) Stabilization of supported liquid membranes, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Twente, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  16. Kemperman AJB, Bargeman D, Van den Boomgaard TH, Strathmann H (1996) Stability of supported liquid membranes: state of the art. Sep Sci Technol 31(20):2733–2762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kemperman AJB, Rolevink HHM, Bargeman D, Van den Boomgaard TH, Strathmann H (1998) Stabilization of supported liquid membranes by interfacial polymerization top layers. J Membr Sci 138:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khan AA, Husain Q (2007) Decolorization and removal of textile and non-textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent by using potato (Solanum tuberosum) soluble and immobilized polyphenol oxidase. Bioresour Technol 98:1012–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li NN (1968) Separating hydrocarbons with liquid membranes. US patent 3:410–794Google Scholar
  20. Li N, Cahn R, Naden D, Lai R (1983) Liquid membrane processes for copper extraction. Hydrometallurgy 9(3):277–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Loiacono O, Drioli E, Molinari R (1986) Metal ion separation and concentration with supported liquid membranes. J Membr Sci 28:123–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ma M, He DS, Liao SH, Zeng Y, Xie QJ, Yao SZ (2002) Kinetic study of L-isoleucine transport through a liquid membrane containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid in kerosene. Anal Chim Acta 456:157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Malinowski JJ (2001) Two-phase partitioning bioreactors in fermentation technology. Biotechnol Adv 19:525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matos M, Suarez MA, Gutierrez G, Coca J, Pazos C (2013) Emulsification with microfiltration ceramic membranes: A different approach to droplet formation mechanism. J Membr Sci 444(1):345–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mulder M (1991) Basic principles of membrane technology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Muthuraman G, Teng TT, Leh CP, Norli I (2009) Use of bulk liquid membrane for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous acidic solution with tri-n-butyl phosphate as a carrier. Desalination 249:884–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nath K (2008) Membrane separation processes. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  28. Paugam MF, Smith BD (1993) Active transport of uridine through a liquid organic membrane mediated by phenylboronic acid and driven by a fluoride ion gradient. Tetrahedron Lett 34(23):3723–3726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Perrier-Cornet J, Marie P, Gervais P (2005) Comparison of emulsification efficiency of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions using jet, high pressure and colloid mill homogenization. J Food Eng 66(2):211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pirkaramia A, Olya ME, Limaee Y (2013) Decolorization of azo dyes by photo electro adsorption process using polyaniline coated electrode. Prog Org Coat 76:682–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Poots VJP, McKay G, Healy JJ (1976) The removal of acid dye from effluent using natural adsorbents-I peat. Water Res 10:1061–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ravindra WG, Sunil AMK (2009) Studies on auramine dye adsorption on psidium guava petals. Korean J Chem Eng 26(1):102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Salem IA, El-maazawi M (2000) Kinetics and mechanism of color removal of methylene blue with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by some supported alumina surfaces. Chemosphere 41:1173–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schlosser S (2000a) Membrane based processes with immobilized inter-face. In: Bako K, Gubicza L, Mulder M (eds) Integration of membrane processes into bioconversions. Kluwer Academic, New York, p 55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schlosser S (2000b) Pertraction through liquid and polymeric membranes. In: Bako K, Gubicza L, Mulder M (eds) Integration of membrane processes into bioconversions. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Stephenson RJ, Sheldon JB (1996) Coagulation and precipitation of a mechanical pulping effluent-I. Removal of carbon, colour and turbidity. Water Res 30:781–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sun D, Duan X, Li W, Zhou D (1998) Demulsification of water-in-oil emulsion by using porous glass membrane. J Membr Sci 146(1):65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Talebi A, Teng TT, Abbas FMA, Norli I (2012) Optimization of nickel removal using liquid–liquid extraction and response surface methodology. Desalin Water Treat 47(1–3):334–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Teng TT, Talebi A, Muthuraman G (2014) In: Hamidi A, Mojiri A (eds) Wastewater Engineering: Advanced Wastewater Treatment Systems. IJSR BooksGoogle Scholar
  40. Tesch S, Schubert H (2002) Influence of increasing viscosity of the aqueous phase on the short-term stability of protein stabilized emulsions. J Food Eng 52(3):305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Van Sonsbeek HM, Beeftink HH, Tramper J (1993) Two-liquid-phase bioreactors. Enzym Microb Technol 15:722–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wells AF (1993) Structual inorganic chemistry. Wydawnictwo Naukowo Techniczne, WarszawaGoogle Scholar
  43. Wódzki R (1997) Liquid membrane. Structure and mechanism of action, [in]: Narębska A. (red.): Membranes and membrane separation technology. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, ToruńGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Soniya
    • 1
  • G. Muthuraman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryPresidency College, University of MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations