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Effects of Climate Change on the Use of Wastewater for Aquaculture Practices

  • Subhendu Adhikari
  • Rathindra Nath Mandal
Chapter

Abstract

Higher water temperature, sea-level rise and lower precipitation are the manifestations of climate change. Higher temperatures of water and changes in extreme events, like floods and droughts, are responsible for affecting water quality. These extreme events can also pollute water from different sources, like sediments, nutrients, pathogens, pesticides, salt and thermal incidence. This polluted water can have negative impacts on ecosystems, human health, water system reliability, etc. In addition, sea-level rise is responsible for extending the areas of groundwater salinization and estuaries, which can decrease the availability of freshwater for humans and ecosystem in coastal areas.

With anticipated higher temperature, the quality of wastewater could be very poor. Higher water temperature will facilitate the excessive growth of algal bloom in wastewater which will in turn reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration. Higher temperature will also increase the biological activity of wastewater; the growth of microbial population will be more, which will increase the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater. Because of higher temperature, the organic matter decomposition could increase, and thereby the release of nutrients, viz. nitrogen and phosphorus, will be more in water, which will in turn increase the chance of eutrophication of wastewater. At the same time, the availability of heavy metals and pesticides present in the wastewater could be more to the organisms cultured in the wastewater. If the chance of rainfall is in excess amount, then the wastewater will be diluted, and all the negative qualities of wastewater will be reduced, and the use of the wastewater will be of no problem for aquaculture and agriculture practices. However, if the precipitation reduces particularly in tropics as predicted because of climate change, then the chance of deterioration of wastewater quality will be more. Thus, the operational cost for the wastewater use for aquaculture purposes will be more. In the present paper, these aspects of wastewater use for aquaculture purposes have been discussed.

Keywords

Climate change Wastewater Use Aquaculture 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subhendu Adhikari
    • 1
  • Rathindra Nath Mandal
    • 1
  1. 1.Regional Research CentreICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater AquacultureKolkataIndia

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