F-type Lectin Domains: Provenance, Prevalence, Properties, Peculiarities, and Potential
F-type lectins are phylogenetically widespread albeit selectively distributed lectins with an L-fucose-binding sequence motif and an F-type lectin fold. Several F-type lectins from fishes have been extensively studied, and structural information is available for F-type lectin domains from fish and bacterial proteins. F-type lectins have been demonstrated to be involved in self−/nonself-recognition and therefore have an important role in pathogen defense in many metazoan animals. F-type lectin domains also have been implicated in functions related to fertilization, protoplast regeneration, and bacterial virulence. We have recently analyzed and reported the taxonomic spread, phylogenetic distribution, architectural contexts, and sequence characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic F-type lectin domains. Interestingly, while eukaryotic F-type lectin domains were frequently present as stand-alone domains, bacterial F-type lectin domains were mostly found co-occurring with enzymatic or nonenzymatic domains in diverse domain architectures, suggesting that the F-type lectin domain might be involved in targeting enzyme activities or directing other biological functions to distinct glycosylated niches in bacteria. We and others have probed the fine oligosaccharide-binding specificity of several F-type lectin domains. The currently available wealth of sequence, structural, and biochemical information about F-type lectin domains provides opportunities for the generation of designer lectins with improved binding strength and altered binding specificities. We discuss the prevalence, provenance, properties, peculiarities, and potential of F-type lectin domains for future applications in this review.
KeywordsF-type lectin domain L-fucose Motif Domain architectures Structural features
The authors’ research described in this review was enabled by a research grant from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, to RTNC (FAST-TRACK grant no. SR/FT/LS-87/2012 to RTNC) and infrastructure and research facilities provided by the CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (manuscript number 05/2018). SM is a DBT Senior Research Fellow.
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