Profile Control and Water Shutoff

  • Caili DaiEmail author
  • Fulin Zhao


Profile control is a method to plug high-permeability layer from water injection well. It can improve injection profile of water injection section. Water shutoff is a method to plug high-permeability layer from production well. It can reduce water production in production wells. Both methods can plug high-permeability layer and divert the injected water entering the low permeable layer. So the sweep efficiency of injected water is promoted, and the oil recovery is enhanced. In this chapter, the chemical agents used in profile control and water shutoff are introduced in detail. The chemical formula and application scope of various chemical agents are listed. Meanwhile, the importance of profile control and water shutoff is described; rough categories and their enhanced oil recovery mechanism of both methods are discussed.


  1. Barbosa ICF, Ribeiro AM, Bonet EJ et al (1987) Process for the correction of oil well productivity and/or injectivity profiles. US Patent 4,643,254, 17 Feb 1987Google Scholar
  2. Bai B, Li L, Liu Y et al (2004) Preformed particle gel for conformance control: factors affecting its properties and application. SPE 89389Google Scholar
  3. Busolo MA, Mogollon JL, Rojas F et al (2001) Permeability modifications by in-situ cations hydrolysis. SPE 64990Google Scholar
  4. Cui Z, Wang Y, Ma W et al (2005) A novel selective plugging agent and its field application. Oilfield Chem 22(1):35–37, 41Google Scholar
  5. Dai C, Zhao F, Li Y et al (2005) Controlling technology of the bottom water coning in the horizontal well in offshore oilfield. Acta Pet Sin 26(4):69–72Google Scholar
  6. Davies S, Hughes T, Lekker H et al (2002) An aqueous delayed-gelation solution and methods of use in hydrocarbon well. GB Patent 2392460A, 29 Aug 2002Google Scholar
  7. Dolan DM, Thiele JL, Willhite GP (1998) Effects of pH and shear on the gelation of a xanthan—Cr(III) system. SPE Prod Facil 13(2):97–103Google Scholar
  8. Dong B (1987) Swollen polyacrylamide for profile control in water injection well and water shutoff in oil well. Oilfield Chem 4(2):91–97Google Scholar
  9. Eoff L, Dalrymple D, Everett D et al (2007) Worldwide field applications of a polymeric gel system for conformance applications. SPE Prod Oper 22(2):231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Frampton H (1997) Downhole fluid control processes. US Patent 5,701,955, 30 Oct 1997Google Scholar
  11. Fielding RC Jr., Gibbons DH, Legrand FP (1994) In-depth drive fluid diversion using an evolution of colloidal dispersion gels and new bulk gels: an operational case history of North Rainbow Ranch Unit. SPE/DOE 27773Google Scholar
  12. Grattoni CA, Jing XD, Zimmerman RW (2001) Disproportionate permeability reduction when a silicate gel is formed in-situ to control water production. SPE 69534Google Scholar
  13. Hardy M, Botermans W, Hamouda A (1999) The first carbonate field application of a new organically crosslinked water shutoff polymer system. SPE 50738Google Scholar
  14. Hirasaki GJ, Miller CA (2003) Reducing water permeability in subterranean formation. EP Patent 1312753A1, 21 May 2003Google Scholar
  15. Hudson PS, Shioyama TK (1987) Permeability contrast correction employing propionate sequestered chromium(III) prepared by nitrite/dichromate redox. US Patent 4,636,572, 13 Sept 1987Google Scholar
  16. Kang S, Lu X, Sun Y et al (2002) Profile control experiments of anionic and cationic polymer solutions. J Daqing Pet Inst 26(3):36–38Google Scholar
  17. Karmakar GP, Grattoni CA, Zimmerman RW (2002) Relative permeability modification using an oil-soluble gellant to control water production. SPE 77414Google Scholar
  18. Lakatos I, Lakatos-Szabo J, Kosztin B et al (2000) Application of iron-hydroxide-based well treatment techniques at Hungarian oil field. SPE 59321Google Scholar
  19. Li Z, Sun M, Lin R et al (2007) Experimental studies on the foam plugging and selective flow-dividing. Acta Pet Sin 28(4):115–118Google Scholar
  20. Liao J, Zhao F (1994) Experimental study on the ferrous sulfate single-liquid profile control agent. J Pet Univ (Nat Sci Ed) 18(3):48–52Google Scholar
  21. Liang J, Sun H, Seright RS (1992) Reduction of oil and water permeabilities using gels. SPE/DOE 24195Google Scholar
  22. Lu Q, Liu Z, Jia L et al (2004) Study on the delayed silica gel plugging agent. Oilfield Chem 21(1):33–35Google Scholar
  23. Mack JC, Smith JE (1994) In-depth colloidal dispersion gels improve oil recovery efficiency. SPE/DOE 27780Google Scholar
  24. McCool CS, Green DW, Willhite GP (1991) Permeability reduction mechanisms involved in situ gelation of a polyacrylamide/chromium (VI)/thiourea system. SPE Reserv Eng 6(1):77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mckown KW, Rothenberger D (1993) Methods of selectively reducing the water permeabilities of subterranean formations. US Patent 5,181,568, 26 Jan 1993Google Scholar
  26. Mitchell TI, Donovan SC, Mcspadden HW (1984) Field application of a chemical heat and nitrogen generating system. SPE 12776Google Scholar
  27. Nasr-El-Din HA, Taylor KC (2005) Evaluation of sodium silicate/urea gels used for water shut-off treatments. J Petrol Sci Eng 48(3–4):141–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Natarajan D, Mccool CS, Green DW et al (1998) Control of in-situ gelation time for hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate systems. SPE 39696Google Scholar
  29. Needham RB, Threlkeld CB, Gall JW (1974) Control of water mobility using polymers and multivalent cations. SPE 4747Google Scholar
  30. Nilsson S, Stavland A, Jonsbraten HC (1998) Mechanistic study of disproportionate permeability reduction. SPE 39635Google Scholar
  31. Seright RS (1997) Use of preformed gels for conformance control in fractured systems. SPE Prod Facil 12(1):59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sun H, Wang T, Xiao J et al (2006) Deep profile control technology of novel polymeric microsphere. Pet Geol Recovery Effic 13(4):77–79Google Scholar
  33. Willhite GP, Zhu H, Natarajan D et al (2000) Mechanisms causing disproportionate permeability in porous media treated with chromium acetate/HPAAM gels. SPE 59345Google Scholar
  34. Wu A, Chen M, Gu S et al (1995) Reaction dynamics of NaNO2 and NH4Cl and their application in oilfield. Oil Drill Prod Technol 17(5):60–64Google Scholar
  35. Wurster DE (1953) Method of applying coatings to edible tablets or the like. US Patent 2,648,609, 11 Aug 1953Google Scholar
  36. Zaitoun A, Kohler N (1991) Thin polyacrylamide gels for water control in high-permeability production wells. SPE 22785Google Scholar
  37. Zaitoun A, Kohler N, Guerrini Y (1991) Improved polyacrylamide treatments for water control in production well. JPT 43(7):862–867Google Scholar
  38. Zhao F, Zhang G, Tao B et al (1987) Laboratory study on the precipitation-type double-liquid plugging agent. Oilfield Chem 42(2):81–90Google Scholar
  39. Zhao F, Chen D, Zang J (1988) Alkaline silicate gel plugging agent. J Pet Univ (Nat Sci Ed) 12(4–5):54–62Google Scholar
  40. Zhao F, Wang Y, Li A et al (1989) Improvement on the chromium gel plugging agent in Chengdong oilfield. J East China Pet Inst 12(2):28–38Google Scholar
  41. Zhao F, Li L (1996) Single-liquid zirconium gel plugging agent. J Pet Univ (Nat Sci Ed) 20(1):43–47Google Scholar
  42. Zhao J, Dai C, Wang L et al (2009) Study on the sodium silicate inorganic plugging agents. Oilfield Chem 26(3):269–272Google Scholar
  43. Zhao F, Wang F, Yang N (1991) The research and application of the plugging agent used in the whole water shutoff in south region of west Chengdong oilfield. J Pet Univ (Nat Sci Ed) 12(1):37–48Google Scholar
  44. Zhdanov SA, Amiyan AV, Surguchev LM et al (1996) Application of foam for gas and water shut off: review of field experience. SPE 36914Google Scholar
  45. Zhu H, Yu C, Zhao F (1989) Zirconium gel water shutoff agent. Oilfield Chem 6(1):27–31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and China University of Petroleum Press 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Petroleum EngineeringChina University of Petroleum (East China)QingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations