Advertisement

Management of Premalignant Disease of the Oral Mucosa

  • Camile S. Farah
  • Katherine Pollaers
  • Agnieszka Frydrych
Chapter
Part of the Head and Neck Cancer Clinics book series (HNCC)

Abstract

Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) have been defined as ‘a morphologically altered tissue in which cancer is more likely to occur than in its apparently normal counterpart’ [1, 2]. A number of lesions and conditions are included under the umbrella of OPMD including (1) leukoplakia, (2) erythroplakia, (3) oral submucous fibrosis, (4) palatal lesions in reverse smokers, (5) oral lichen planus, (6) discoid lupus erythematosus and (7) actinic cheilitis [3]. In addition, rare inherited conditions, such as xeroderma pigmentosum and Fanconi’s anaemia, carry an increased incidence of oral cancer. Immunodeficiency due to the prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs or due to an underlying HIV infection may increase risk, and oral cancer has also been reported in patients suffering from chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A risk assessment tool for head and neck cancer is shown in Fig. 11.1.

References

  1. 1.
    Kramer IR, et al. Definition of leukoplakia and related lesions: an aid to studies on oral precancer. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1978;46(4):518–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Axell T, et al. Oral white lesions with special reference to precancerous and tobacco- related lesions: conclusions of an international symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden, May 18-21 1994. International Collaborative Group on Oral White Lesions. J Oral Pathol Med. 1996;25(2):49–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mortazavi H. Oral potentially malignant disorders: an overview of more than 20 entities. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2014;8(1):6–14.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bouquot JE, Speight PM, Farthing PM. Epithelial dysplasia of the oral mucosa—diagnostic problems and prognostic features. Oral Oncol. 2006;12:11–21.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bombeccari GP, et al. Oral lichen planus and malignant transformation: a longitudinal cohort study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;112(3):328–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Silverman S Jr, Gorsky M, Lozada-Nur F. A prospective follow-up study of 570 patients with oral lichen planus: persistence, remission, and malignant association. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1985;60(1):30–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Landini G, et al. The reported rates of transformation of oral lichen planus. J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol. 2014;26:213–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Al-Hashimi I, et al. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103(Suppl):S25.e1–12.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    van der Meij EH, et al. A review of the recent literature regarding malignant transformation of oral lichen planus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1999;88(3):307–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ismail SB, Kumar SK, Zain RB. Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reactions: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and malignant transformation. J Oral Sci. 2007;49(2):89–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Calcaianu N, et al. Surgical attitude in premalignant lesions and malignant tumors of the lower lip. J Med Life. 2015;8(1):109–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Napier SS, Speight PM. Natural history of potentially malignant oral lesions and conditions: an overview of the literature. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37(1):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dost F, Do L, Farah CS. Lesion Evaluation, Screening and Identification of Oral Neoplasia Study: an assessment of high-risk Australian populations. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2016;44(1):64–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thomson PJ, et al. To treat…or not to treat? Clinicians’ views on the management of oral potentially malignant disorders. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;53(10):1027–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    van der Waal I. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; terminology, classification and present concepts of management. Oral Oncol. 2009;45(4-5):317–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Field EA, et al. The management of oral epithelial dysplasia: the Liverpool algorithm. Oral Oncol. 2015;51(10):883–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Epstein JB, et al. Oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy: from cancer treatment to survivorship. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62(6):400–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yu GP, et al. Non-cancer-related deaths from suicide, cardiovascular disease, and pneumonia in patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;138(1):25–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tadakamadla J, Kumar S, Johnson NW. Quality of life in patients with oral potentially malignant disorders: a systematic review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2015;119(6):644–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Flaitz CM, Carlin N. Living in limbo: ethics and experience in a conversation about persistent oral lesions. Tex Dent J. 2013;130(8):692–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lin HY, et al. Unmet information needs and clinical characteristics in patients with precancerous oral lesions. Eur J Cancer Care. 2015;24(6):911–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    More CB, et al. Proposed clinical classification for oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Oncol. 2012;48(3):200–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tilakaratne WM, et al. Intralesional corticosteroids as a treatment for restricted mouth opening in oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;122(2):224–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lopez-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F. Quality of life in patients with oral lichen planus. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010;16(1):111–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rhodus NL, et al. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in saliva before and after treatment of (erosive) oral lichen planus with dexamethasone. Oral Dis. 2006;12(2):112–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ekanayaka RP, Tilakaratne WM. Oral submucous fibrosis: review on mechanisms of malignant transformation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;122(2):192–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    van der Waal I. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; present concepts of management. Oral Oncol. 2010;46(6):423–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nair DR, et al. Oral cancer: premalignant conditions and screening--an update. J Cancer Res Ther. 2012;8(Suppl 1):S57–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McGrath C, et al. Patient-centred outcome measures for oral mucosal disease are sensitive to treatment. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;32(3):334–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ni Riordain R, McCreary C. Further reliability and responsiveness of the Chronic Oral Mucosal Diseases Questionnaire. Oral Dis. 2012;18(1):60–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tabolli S, et al. Quality of life and psychological problems of patients with oral mucosal disease in dermatological practice. Dermatology. 2009;218(4):314–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hegarty AM, et al. Fluticasone propionate spray and betamethasone sodium phosphate mouthrinse: a randomized crossover study for the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47(2):271–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li M, He SL. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the chronic oral mucosal diseases questionnaire. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013;42(2):194–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu LJ, et al. Generic and oral quality of life is affected by oral mucosal diseases. BMC Oral Health. 2012;12:2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Karbach J, et al. Oral health-related quality of life of patients with oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, or oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72(8):1517–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ni Riordain R, McCreary C. Validity and reliability of a newly developed quality of life questionnaire for patients with chronic oral mucosal diseases. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011;40(8):604–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rimal J, Shrestha A. Validation of nepalese oral health impact profile14 and assessment of its impact in patients with oral submucous fibrosis in Nepal. J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2015;13(29):43–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bassim CW, et al. Validation of the National Institutes of Health chronic GVHD Oral Mucosal Score using component-specific measures. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2014;49(1):116–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Carpenter PA, et al. National Institutes of Health consensus development project on criteria for clinical trials in chronic graft-versus-host disease: V. The 2014 ancillary therapy and supportive care working group report. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015;21(7):1167–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Farah CS, et al. Oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. Int J Dent. 2014;2014:853479.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Otero-Rey EM, et al. Malignant transformation of oral lichen planus by a chronic inflammatory process. Use of topical corticosteroids to prevent this progression? Acta Odontol Scand. 2014;72(8):570–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu W, et al. Malignant potential of oral and labial chronic discoid lupus erythematosus: a clinicopathological study of 87 cases. Histopathology. 2011;59(2):292–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Diz P, et al. Oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia: a protocol for diagnosis and management. EAOM - Diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. 2011.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Warnakulasuriya S, Ariyawardana A. Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: a systematic review of observational studies. J Oral Pathol Med. 2016;45(3):155–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dost F, et al. A retrospective analysis of clinical features of oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders with and without oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013;116(6):725–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dost F, et al. Malignant transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia: a real-world evaluation of histopathologic grading. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014;117(3):343–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mays JW, et al. Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease: current pathogenesis, therapy, and research. Oral Dis. 2013;19(4):327–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kerr AR, et al. A systematic review of medical interventions for oral submucous fibrosis and future research opportunities. Oral Dis. 2011;17(Suppl 1):42–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Einhorn J, Wersall J. Incidence of oral carcinoma in patients with leukoplakia of the ora mucosa. Cancer. 1967;20:2189–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Banoczy J, Sugar L. Longitudinal studies in oral leukoplakias. J Oral Pathol. 1972;1(6):265–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gupta PC, et al. An epidemiologic assessment of cancer risk in oral precancerous lesions in India with special reference to nodular leukoplakia. Cancer. 1989;63(11):2247–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Roed-Petersen B. Cancer development in oral leukoplakia follow-up of 331 patients. J Dent Res. 1971;80:711.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lind PO. Malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia. Scand J Dent Res. 1987;95(6):449–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schepman KP, et al. Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: a follow-up study of a hospital-based population of 166 patients with oral leukoplakia from The Netherlands. Oral Oncol. 1998;34:270–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Silverman S Jr, Gorsky M, Lozada F. Oral leukoplakia and malignant transformation. A follow-up study of 257 patients. Cancer. 1984;53(3):563–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Abadie WM, et al. Optimal management of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a systematic review of the literature. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;153(4):504–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fitzpatrick SG, Hirsch SA, Gordon SC. The malignant transformation of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: a systematic review. J Am Dent Assoc. 2014;145(1):45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gonzalez-Moles MA, Scully C, Gil-Montoya JA. Oral lichen planus: controversies surrounding malignant transformation. Oral Dis. 2008;14(3):229–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Smith LW, et al. Oral cancer and precancerous lesions in 57,518 industrial workers of Gujarat, India. Indian J Cancer. 1975;12(2):118–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Axell T. Occurence of leukoplakia and some other oral white lesions among 20,333 adult Swedish people. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1987;15:46–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lim K, et al. Opportunistic screening for oral cancer and precancer in general dental practice: results of a demonstration study. Br Dent J. 2003;194(9):497–502. discussion 493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Banoczy J, Csiba A. Occurrence of epithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia. Analysis and follow-up study of 12 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1976;42(6):766–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pindborg JJ, Roed-Peterson B, Renstrup G. Role of smoking in floor of the mouth leukoplakias. J Oral Pathol. 1972;1(1):22–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Banoczy J. Follow-up studies in oral leukoplakia. J Maxillofac Surg. 1977;5(1):69–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ho PS, et al. Malignant transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders in males: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:260.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ho MW, et al. The clinical determinants of malignant transformation in oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Oncol. 2012;48(10):969–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hamadah O, Thomson PJ. Factors affecting carbon dioxide laser treatment for oral precancer: a patient cohort study. Lasers Surg Med. 2009;41(1):17–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hashibe M, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(2):541–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Munoz AA, et al. Behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma in subjects with prior lichen planus. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136(3):401–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fioretti F, et al. Risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancer in never smokers. Oral Oncol. 1999;35(4):375–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Turati F, et al. A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and oral and pharyngeal cancers: results from subgroup analyses. Alcohol Alcohol. 2013;48(1):107–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shiu MN, Chen TH. Impact of betel quid, tobacco and alcohol on three-stage disease natural history of oral leukoplakia and cancer: implication for prevention of oral cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2004;13(1):39–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bauer UE, et al. Prevention of chronic disease in the 21st century: elimination of the leading preventable causes of premature death and disability in the USA. Lancet. 2014;384(9937):45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    McCullough MJ, Farah CS. The role of alcohol in oral carcinogenesis with particular reference to alcohol-containing mouthwashes. Aust Dent J. 2008;53(4):302–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Currie S, Farah CS. Alcohol-containing mouthwash and oral cancer risk: a review of current evidence. OA Alcohol. 2014;2(1):4.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gandini S, et al. Mouthwash and oral cancer risk quantitative meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19(2):173–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ahrens W, et al. Oral health, dental care and mouthwash associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in Europe: the ARCAGE study. Oral Oncol. 2014;50(6):616–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Radoï L, et al. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study. BMC Cancer. 2013;13(1):560.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Brown LM, et al. Family cancer history and susceptibility to oral carcinoma in Puerto Rico. Cancer. 2001;92:2102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Foulkes WD, et al. Family history of cancer is a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in Brazil: a case–control study. Int J Cancer. 1995;63:769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Garavello W, et al. Family history and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Negri E, et al. Family history of cancer: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Int J Cancer. 2009;124(2):394–401.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dost F, Ford PJ, Farah CS. Heightened risk of second primary carcinoma of the head and neck following cervical neoplasia. Head Neck. 2014;36(8):1132–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Trizna Z, Schantz SP. Hereditary and environmental factors associated with risk and progression of head and neck cancer. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1992;25(5):1089–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jefferies S, et al. The role of genetic factors in predisposition to squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Br J Cancer. 1999;79(5-6):865–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shridhar K, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms as markers of genetic susceptibility for oral potentially malignant disorders risk: review of evidence to date. Oral Oncol. 2016;61:146–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Shridhar K, et al. DNA methylation markers for oral pre-cancer progression: a critical review. Oral Oncol. 2016;53:1–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lee YC, et al. Active and involuntary tobacco smoking and upper aerodigestive tract cancer risks in a multicenter case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(12):3353–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Paget-Bailly S, Cyr D, Luce D. Occupational exposures to asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and solvents, and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx: a quantitative literature review. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2012;85(4):341–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tarvainen L, et al. Cancer of the mouth and pharynx, occupation and exposure to chemical agents in Finland [in 1971-95]. Int J Cancer. 2008;123(3):653–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schildt EB, et al. Occupational exposures as risk factors for oral cancer evaluated in a Swedish case-control study. Oncol Rep. 1999;6(2):317–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tsai KY, et al. Environmental heavy metal as a potential risk factor for the progression of oral potentially malignant disorders in central Taiwan. Cancer Epidemiol. 2017;47:118–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tortorici S, et al. Prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal non-malignant lesions in the western Sicilian population. Minerva Stomatol. 2016;65(4):191–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Junqueira JL, et al. Actinic cheilitis among agricultural workers in Campinas, Brazil. Commun Dent Health. 2011;28(1):60–3.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ferreira AM, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with oral potentially malignant disorders in Brazil’s rural workers. Oral Dis. 2016;22(6):536–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    de Souza Lucena EE, et al. Prevalence and factors associated to actinic cheilitis in beach workers. Oral Dis. 2012;18(6):575–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kramer IR, El-Labban N, Lee KW. The clinical features and risk of malignant transformation in sublingual keratosis. Br Dent J. 1978;144(6):171–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Holmstrup P, et al. Long-term treatment outcome of oral premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol. 2006;42(5):461–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Coombes D, Cascarini L, Booth PW. Carcinoma of the midline dorsum of the tongue. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;46(6):485–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Saito T, et al. High malignant transformation rate of widespread multiple oral leukoplakias. Oral Dis. 1999;5(1):15–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hamadah O, Goodson ML, Thomson PJ. Clinicopathological behaviour of multiple oral dysplastic lesions compared with that of single lesions. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48(7):503–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    van der Waal I. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable? Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2014;19(4):e386–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Savage NW, McKay C, Faulkner C. Actinic cheilitis in dental practice. Aust Dent J. 2010;55(1 Suppl):78–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Krishnan L, et al. Inter- and intra-observer variability in three grading systems for oral epithelial dysplasia. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2016;20(2):261–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kujan O, et al. Why oral histopathology suffers inter-observer variability on grading oral epithelial dysplasia: an attempt to understand the sources of variation. Oral Oncol. 2007;43(3):224–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wang YY, et al. Malignant transformation in 5071 southern Taiwanese patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders. BMC Oral Health. 2014;14:99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Krutchkoff DJ, Eisenberg E. Lichenoid dysplasia: a distinct histopathologic entity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1985;60(3):308–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    van der Meij EH, van der Waal I. Lack of clinicopathologic correlation in the diagnosis of oral lichen planus based on the presently available diagnostic criteria and suggestions for modifications. J Oral Pathol Med. 2003;32(9):507–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bornstein MM, et al. Oral lichen planus and malignant transformation: a retrospective follow-up study of clinical and histopathologic data. Quintessence Int. 2006;37(4):261–71.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    van der Meij EH, Mast H, van der Waal I. The possible premalignant character of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: a prospective five-year follow-up study of 192 patients. Oral Oncol. 2007;43(8):742–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zhang L, et al. Should severe epithelial dysplasia be treated? Oral Oncol. 2016;60:125–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Arnaoutakis D, et al. Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(8):814–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Mehanna HM, et al. Treatment and follow-up of oral dysplasia - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Head Neck. 2009;31(12):1600–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bremmer JF, et al. Prognostic value of DNA ploidy status in patients with oral leukoplakia. Oral Oncol. 2011;47(10):956–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Brouns ER, et al. DNA ploidy measurement in oral leukoplakia: different results between flow and image cytometry. Oral Oncol. 2012;48(7):636–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sen S. Aneuploidy and cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 2000;12(1):82–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bradley G, et al. Abnormal DNA content in oral epithelial dysplasia is associated with increased risk of progression to carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2010;103(9):1432–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Sperandio M, et al. Predictive value of dysplasia grading and DNA ploidy in malignant transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013;6(8):822–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sitheeque MA, Samaranayake LP. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (candidal leukoplakia). Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14(4):253–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gainza-Cirauqui ML, et al. Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida albicans from patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013;42(3):243–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wu L, et al. Candidal infection in oral leukoplakia: a clinicopathologic study of 396 patients from eastern China. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2013;17(1):37–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Chiu CT, et al. Candida invasion and influences in smoking patients with multiple oral leucoplakias--a retrospective study. Mycoses. 2011;54(5):e377–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell. 2011;144(5):646–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Grivennikov SI, Greten FR, Karin M. Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Cell. 2010;140(6):883–99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Feller L, Altini M, Lemmer J. Inflammation in the context of oral cancer. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(9):887–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lu R, et al. Inflammation-related cytokines in oral lichen planus: an overview. J Oral Pathol Med. 2015;44(1):1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Gandolfo S, et al. Risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma in 402 patients with oral lichen planus: a follow-up study in an Italian population. Oral Oncol. 2004;40(1):77–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lodi G, et al. Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia to prevent oral cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;7:CD001829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lodi G, Porter S. Management of potentially malignant disorders: evidence and critique. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37(2):63–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ribeiro AS, et al. A review of the nonsurgical treatment of oral leukoplakia. Int J Dent. 2010;2010:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gudas LJ. Retinoids, retinoid-responsive genes, cell differentiation, and cancer. Cell Growth Differ. 1992;3:655–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hong WK, et al. Retinoid chemoprevention of aerodigestive cancer: from basic research to the clinic. Clin Cancer Res. 1995;1:677–86.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Scher RL, et al. Fenretinide-induced apoptosis of human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell lines. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;118:464–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Gorsky M, Epstein JB. The effect of retinoids on premalignant oral lesions: focus on topical therapy. Cancer. 2002;95(6):1258–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Paitelli A, et al. bcl-2 expression and apoptotic bodies in 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin)-topically treated oral leukoplakia: a pilot study. Oral Oncol. 1999;35:314–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Shah JP, et al. Effects of retinoids on oral leukoplakia. Am J Surg. 1983;146:466–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Epstein JB, Gorsky M. Topical application of vitamin A to oral leukoplakia - a clinical case series. Cancer. 1999;96:921–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Tete S, et al. The role of apoptosis and bcl-2 protein in topical treatment of oral leukoplakia with isotretinoin. Minerva Stomatol. 1999;48:411–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Epstein JB, et al. Topical bleomycin treatment of oral leukoplakia: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Head Neck. 1994;16(6):539–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Epstein JB, et al. Topical bleomycin for the treatment of dysplastic oral leukoplakia. Am Cancer Soc. 1998;83(4):629–34.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Chan G, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is up-regulated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Res. 1999;59(3):991–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Renkonen J, Wolff H, Paavonen T. Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in human tongue carcinoma and its precursor lesions. Virchows Arch. 2002;440:594–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Mulshine J, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIB trial of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketorolac as an oral rinse in oropharyngeal leukoplakia. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:1565–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ulrich C, et al. Management of actinic cheilitis using diclofenac 3% gel: a report of six cases. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156(Suppl 3):43–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Jepsen A, Winther JE. Mycotic infection in oral leukoplakia. Acta Odontol Scand. 2009;23(3):239–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Galle F, et al. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions. New Microbiol. 2013;36:283–8.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Diajil A, et al. Clinical outcome following oral potentially malignant disorder treatment: a 100 patient cohort study. Int J Dent. 2013;2013:809248.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hebbar PB, Pai A, Sujatha D. Mycological and histological associations of Candida in oral mucosal lesions. J Oral Sci. 2013;55(2):157–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Cawson RA, Lehner T. Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis - candidal leukoplakia. Br J Dermatol. 1968;80(9):9–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Thomas SM, Grandis JR. The current state of head and neck cancer gene therapy. Hum Gene Ther. 2009;20:1565–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Koch WM, et al. p53 Mutation and locoregional treatment failure in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88(21):1580–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Shin DM, et al. Activation of p53 gene expression in premalignant lesions during head and neck tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 1994;54:321–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Rudin CM, et al. An attenuated adenovirus, ONYX-015, as mouthwash therapy for premalignant oral dysplasia. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(24):4546–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Shah AY, Doherty SD, Rosen T. Actinic cheilitis: a treatment review. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49(11):1225–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Robinson JK. Actinic cheilitis a prospective study comparing four treatment methods. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1989;115:848–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Warnock GR, Fuller RP Jr, Pelleu GB Jr. Evaluation of 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of actinic keratosis of the lip. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1981;52(5):501–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Smith KJ, et al. Topical 5% imiquimod for the therapy of actinic cheilitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47(4):497–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Flórez Á, Batalla A, de la Torre C. Management of actinic cheilitis using ingenol mebutate gel: a report of seven cases. J Dermatolog Treat. 2017;28(2):149–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Epstein JB, et al. A survey of the current approaches to diagnosis and management of oral premalignant lesions. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138(12):1555–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Stich HF, et al. Response of oral leukoplakias to the administration of vitamin A. Cancer Lett. 1988;40:93–101.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Sankaranarayanan R, et al. Chemoprevention of oral leukoplakia with vitamin A and beta carotene: an assessment. Oral Oncol. 1997;33(4):231–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Hong WK, et al. 13-Cis-retinoic acid in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. N Engl J Med. 1986;315:1501–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kaugars GE, et al. Use of antioxidant supplements in the treatment of human oral leukoplakia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1996;81:5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Nagao T, et al. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with a low-dose of beta-carotene and vitamin C supplements: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Cancer. 2015;136(7):1708–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Singh M, et al. Efficacy of oral lycopene in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. Oral Oncol. 2004;40(6):591–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Clinicaltrials.gov. Aspirin Mouthwash in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia. 2013. Accessed 3 Feb 2017.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Clinicaltrials.gov. A Randomized Study of Sulindac in Oral Premalignant Lesions. 2016. Accessed 3 Feb 2017.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Clinicaltrials.gov. Metformin Hydrochloride in Preventing Oral Cancer in Patients With an Oral Premalignant Lesion. 2017. Accessed 3 Feb 2017.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Clinicaltrials.gov. Rosiglitazone Maleate in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia. 2017. Accessed 3 Feb 2017. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00369174?term=Rosiglitazone+Maleate+in+Treating+Patients+With+Oral+Leukoplakia&rank=1.
  170. 170.
    Haddad RI, Shin DM. Recent Advances in Head and Neck Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1143–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Specenier P, Vermorken JB. Biologic therapy in head and neck cancer: a road with hurdles. Int Scholar Res Net. 2012;2012:1–15.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Grandis JR, Tweardy DJ. Elevated levels of transforming growth factor a and epidermal growth factor receptor messenger RNA are early markers of carcinogenesis in head and neck cancer. Cancer Res. 1993;53:3579–84.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Therapeutic Goods Administration. Australian Public assessment report for cetuximab, in Australian Public Assessment Record. Woden, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia; 2013.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves first head & neck cancer treatment in 45 years data shows treatment with erbitux extends survival. Baltimore, MD: USFDA; 2006.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
  176. 176.
    Scully C, Eisen D, Carrozzo M. Management of oral lichen planus. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2000;1(5):287–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Zhang J, et al. Biologics, an alternative therapeutic approach for oral lichen planus. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011;40(7):521–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Heffernan MP, et al. A single-center, open-label, prospective pilot study of subcutaneous efalizumab for oral erosive lichen planus. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6(3):310–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Bekke J, Baart J. Six years’ experience with cryosurgery in the oral cavity. Int J Oral Surg. 1979;8(4):251–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Sako K, Marchetta FC, Hayes RL. Cryotherapy of intraoral leukoplakia. Am J Surg. 1972;124:482–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kawczyk-Krupka A, et al. Comparison of cryotherapy and photodynamic therapy in treatment of oral leukoplakia. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2012;9(2):148–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Kuwahara RT, Rasberry RD. Cryosurgery acne attachment for actinic cheilitis. Dermatol Surg. 2000;26(9):899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ben-Bssat M, et al. The CO2 laser in surgery of the tongue. Bt J Plast Surg. 1978;31:155–6.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Thomson PJ, Wylie J. Interventional laser surgery: an effective surgical and diagnostic tool in oral precancer management. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;31:145–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Panwar A, Lindau R, Wieland A. Management for premalignant lesions of the oral cavity. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2014;14(3):349–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Ishii J, Fujita K, Komori T. Laser surgery as a treatment for oral leukoplakia. Oral Oncol. 2003;39(8):759–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Frame JW, et al. Use of the carbon dioxide laser in the Management of premalignant lesions of the oral Mucosa. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;98(12):1251–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Flynn M, White M, Tabah R. Use of carbon dioxide laser for the treatment of premalignant lesions of the oral mucosa. J Surg Oncol. 1988;37:232–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Roodenburg J, Panders A, Vermey A. Carbon dioxide laser surgery of oral leukoplakia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1991;71:670–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Chandu A, Smith AC. The use of CO2 laser in the treatment of oral white patches: outcomes and factors affecting recurrence. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;34:396–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Chiesa F, Sala L, Costa L. Excision of oral leukoplakias by CO2 laser on an out-patient basis: a useful procedure for prevention and early detection of oral carcinomas. Tumori. 1986;72:307–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    van der Hem PS, et al. The results of CO2 laser surgery in patients with oral leukoplakia: a 25 year follow up. Oral Oncol. 2005;41(1):31–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Horch H, Gerlach K, Schaefer H. CO2 laser surgery of oral premalignant lesions. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1986;15:19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    White J, et al. Nd: YAG and CO2 laser therapy of oral mucosal lesions. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1998;16:299–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Schoelcg ML, et al. Laser management of oral leukoplakias: a follow-up study of 70 patients. Laryngoscope. 1999;109:943–53.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Chu FWK, SIlverman S Jr, Dedo HH. CO2 laser treatment of oral leukoplakia. Laryngoscope. 1988;98(2):125–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Chiesa F, et al. Follow-up of oral leukoplakia after carbon dioxide laser surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990;116:177–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Pinheiro A, Frame J. Surgical management of pre-malignant lesions of the oral cavity with the CO2 laser. Braz Dent J. 1996;7:103–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Lumerman H, Freedman P, Kerpel S. Oral epithelial dysplasia and the development of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1995;79:321–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Schwarz F, et al. Cytologic and DNA-cytometric follow-up of oral leukoplakia after CO2- and Er:YAG-laser assisted ablation: a pilot study. Lasers Surg Med. 2005;37(1):29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Nammour S, et al. Evaluation of different laser-supported surgical protocols for the treatment of oral leukoplakia: a long-term follow-up. Photomed Laser Surg. 2017;35:629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Zelickson BD, Roenigk RK. Actinic cheilitis. Treatment with the carbon dioxide laser. Cancer. 1990;65(6):1307–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    de Godoy Peres FF, et al. A study of actinic cheilitis treatment by two low-morbidity CO2 laser vaporization one-pass protocols. Lasers Med Sci. 2009;24(3):375–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Orenstein A, et al. A new modality in the treatment of actinic cheilitis using the Er:YAG laser. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2007;9(1):23–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Armenores P, et al. Treatment of actinic cheilitis with the Er:YAG laser. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63(4):642–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Johnson TM, et al. Carbon dioxide laser treatment of actinic cheilitis. Clinicohistopathologic correlation to determine the optimal depth of destruction. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27(5 Pt 1):737–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Holmstrup P, et al. Oral premalignant lesions: is a biopsy reliable? J Oral Pathol Med. 2007;36(5):262–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Gomes CC, et al. Inter- and intra-lesional molecular heterogeneity of oral leukoplakia. Oral Oncol. 2015;51(2):178–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Holmstrup P, Dabelsteen E. Oral leukoplakia-to treat or not to treat. Oral Dis. 2016;22(6):494–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Arduino PG, et al. Outcome of oral dysplasia: a retrospective hospital-based study of 207 patients with a long follow-up. J Oral Pathol Med. 2009;38:540–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Saito T, et al. Development of squamous cell carcinoma from pre-existent oral leukoplakia: with respect to treatment modality. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;30(1):49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Thomson PJ. Field change and oral cancer: new evidence for widespread carcinogenesis? Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;31:262–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Farah CS, et al. Improved surgical margin definition by narrow band imaging for resection of oral squamous cell carcinoma: a prospective gene expression profiling study. Head Neck. 2016;38(6):832–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Poh CF, et al. Fluorescence visualization–guided surgery for early-stage oral cancer. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;142(3):209–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Farah CS, et al. Efficacy of tissue autofluorescence imaging (velscope) in the visualization of oral mucosal lesions. Head Neck. 2012;34(6):856–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Menta Simonsen Nico M, Rivitti EA, Lourenço SV. Actinic cheilitis: histologic study of the entire vermilion and comparison with previous biopsy. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34(4):309–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Satorres Nieto M, Gargallo Albiol J, Gay Escoda C. Surgical management of actinic cheilitis. Med Oral. 2001;6(3):205–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Barry RB, et al. Direct primary closure without undermining in the repair of vermilionectomy defects of the lower lip. Br J Dermatol. 2012;167(5):1092–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Sand M, Altmeyer P, Bechara FG. Mucosal advancement flap versus primary closure after vermilionectomy of the lower lip. Dermatol Surg. 2010;36(12):1987–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Dougherty T, Schwartz S. Photodynamic therapy for cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003;3(5):380–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Vohra F, et al. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in the management of oral premalignant lesions. A systematic review. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2015;12(1):150–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Jerjes W, et al. Photodynamic therapy outcome for oral dysplasia. Lasers Surg Med. 2011;43(3):192–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Jerjes W, Hamdoon Z, Hopper C. Photodynamic therapy in the management of potentially malignant and malignant oral disorders. Head Neck Oncol. 2012;4:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Clinicaltrials.gov. Photodynamic therapy for oral precursor lesions (PDT). 2016. Accessed 3 Feb 2017.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Ozog DM, et al. Photodynamic therapy: a clinical consensus guide. Dermatol Surg. 2016;42(7):2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Sotiriou E, et al. Actinic cheilitis treated with one cycle of 5-aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: report of 10 cases. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159(1):261–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Sotiriou E, et al. Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid in actinic cheilitis: an 18-month clinical and histological follow-up. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24(8):916–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Berking C, et al. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy in actinic cheilitis of the lower lip: a prospective study of 15 patients. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33(7):825–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Suárez-Pérez JA, et al. Treatment of actinic cheilitis with methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy and light fractionation: a prospective study of 10 patients. Eur J Dermatol. 2015;25(6):623–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Choi SH, Kim KH, Song KH. Efficacy of ablative fractional laser-assisted photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis: 12-month follow-up results of a prospective, randomized, comparative trial. Br J Dermatol. 2015;173(1):184–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Kim SK, Song HS, Kim YC. Topical photodynamic therapy may not be effective for actinic cheilitis despite repeated treatments. Eur J Dermatol. 2013;23(6):917–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Hsue S, et al. Malignant transformation in 1458 patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders: a follow-up study based in a Taiwanese hospital. J Oral Pathol Med. 2007;36:25–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Kanatas AN, et al. The configuration of clinics and the use of biopsy and photography in oral premalignancy: a survey of consultants of the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;49(2):99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Licitra L, et al. Evaluation of the benefit and use of multidisciplinary teams in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol. 2016;59:73–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter A. Brennan, Tom Aldridge, Raghav C. Dwivedi, Rehan Kazi 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Camile S. Farah
    • 1
  • Katherine Pollaers
    • 1
  • Agnieszka Frydrych
    • 1
  1. 1.Australian Centre for Oral Oncology Research and Education, UWA Dental SchoolUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations