Since the mid-nineteenth century, Japan has largely increased its military and technological strength through its “Meiji Restoration”, transforming itself from an undeveloped feudal country into a member of the then-imperialist powers. This growing power and the fact that it lacked resources stirred up a strong ambition of invasion, which finally led to the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. The defeated Qing government was forced to sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki with the Japanese invaders in 1895, cede Taiwan and the Penghu Islands to Japan, and pay an indemnity of 200 million tael of silver. Since then, Taiwan became a Japanese colony until the end of World War II. Half a century’s colonial rule made several foreign countries believe that the issue of whether Taiwan should be regarded as a part of China’s territory was undetermined, which constituted a potential obstacle to Taiwan’s reunification with China.