Clinical Application of the Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT)

  • Toshihiro ShiraiEmail author
Part of the Respiratory Disease Series: Diagnostic Tools and Disease Managements book series (RDSDTDM)


The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method for measurement of respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) during tidal breathing, which avoids the requirement for forced expiration (as in spirometry). Its clinical application has progressed worldwide with the spread of commercially available broadband frequency FOT devices, including MostGraph and impulse oscillometry (IOS). An increasing number of reports have demonstrated the usefulness of FOT in the management of asthma and COPD. Rrs, especially Rrs at 5 Hz (R5), is a marker of airway caliber, i.e., airway narrowing. Since the changes in FOT parameters are generally greater than the changes in spirometry, the FOT may be useful in airway reversibility testing to diagnose asthma. By using both Rrs and Xrs, it is possible to differentiate asthma from COPD, particularly when combined with the characteristic colored 3D images produced by MostGraph. The FOT is not a surrogate test for spirometry but should be used complementarily. Furthermore, there is a need to establish reference values and provide interpretations of measured data.


Forced oscillation technique Respiratory reactance Respiratory resistance 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Respiratory MedicineShizuoka General HospitalShizuokaJapan

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