Asthma Phenotype and Endotype

  • Satoshi KonnoEmail author
Part of the Respiratory Disease Series: Diagnostic Tools and Disease Managements book series (RDSDTDM)


Asthma has been recognized as a heterogeneous and genetically complex disease that cannot be explained with a single mechanism. Asthma comprises a number of disease variants with different underlying pathophysiologies. Recently, the term “precision medicine” has been proposed and defined as “treatments targeted to the needs of individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic, or psychosocial characteristics that distinguish a given patient from other patients with similar clinical presentations.” In the context of chronic airways diseases, precision medicine can therefore be a promising strategy to improve management. Precision medicine is based on integrated assessment of the complex clinical and biological status of individual patients, based on the concept of “phenotype,” “endotype,” and “treatable traits.” This section summarizes the recent concept of these terms toward the accomplishment of treating asthmatic subjects.


Phenotype Endotype Cluster analysis Diagnosis Treatable traits 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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