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Cellular Mechanisms of Allergic Airway Inflammation

  • Koichi Takagi
  • Kentaro Machida
  • Hiromasa InoueEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Respiratory Disease Series: Diagnostic Tools and Disease Managements book series (RDSDTDM)

Abstract

Asthma has long been considered to be driven by allergen-specific T helper 2 (Th2) responses. Although Th2 cytokines produced by Th2 cells play a central role in the induction and regulation of airway inflammation, clinical and basic studies have begun to shed light on the role of many types of cells. It is now well recognized that asthma is a multicellular disease, involving abnormal responses of many different cell types in the lung, including airway structural cells and innate and adaptive immune cells. A subpopulation of CD4+ T cells, such as Th1, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs), has also been implicated in the regulation of airway inflammation. Airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells play an important role in promoting innate and adaptive immune responses in asthma. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) stimulated by epithelial cell-derived cytokines, IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), produce Th2 cytokines and have been reported to be involved in the induction of airway inflammation. Complementary experimental approaches including cultured cells, animal models, and human clinical studies have provided many insights into diverse cellular mechanisms in this complex disease.

Keywords

Asthma Airway inflammation Airway structural cells Innate and adaptive immune cells 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koichi Takagi
    • 1
  • Kentaro Machida
    • 1
  • Hiromasa Inoue
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pulmonary MedicineGraduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima UniversityKagoshimaJapan

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