Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Asthma
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) do not express antigen-specific receptors or lineage-specific surface markers but produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines in response to interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33 secreted from bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with protease-based allergens or infection with microorganisms. The number of ILC2s are increased and activated in the peripheral blood and airways of patients with asthma, especially with severe and/or eosinophilic forms. Corticosteroids can induce ILC2 apoptosis; however, these cells acquire corticosteroid resistance through activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 pathway by thymic stromal lymphopoietin or IL-7. ILC2 activities are negatively regulated by interferons; however, lack of type I and III interferon synthesis in asthmatic airways exacerbates inflammation during respiratory viral infection.
KeywordsInterleukin-33 Thymic stromal lymphopoietin Corticosteroids Viral infection Interferon
This research was supported by the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) under grant number JP18ek0410026.
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