Status of Composting for OFMSW Treatment in Karnataka and West Bengal: Case Studies and Sustainability
The present scenario of worldwide generation of MSW is growing exponentially. It is estimated that the amount of waste global waste generation is extended approximately 1.3 billion tonnes per annum whereas India generates 62 million tons of MSW per year. In India, it has been reported that 40–60% of total engendered waste is organic waste containing food waste, vegetable waste, market waste, household waste, flower waste, green waste, biomass waste, other commercial market waste etc. With the perspective of waste treatment and valorization, for organic fraction of MSW (OFMSW), biochemical treatment processes are most suitable because most of the Indian MSW contain higher percentage of moisture content. Composting is a preferred option in an agricultural based country like India. Due to poor segregation at source and at the material transfer stations higher probability of heavy metal contamination is there. However, composting has several advantages over chemical fertilizer and in certain rural localities, the demands of compost are increasing. Karnataka is one of the pioneering states on SWM in India and is quite developed in that front, whereas West Bengal is a developing state and will progress in near future. In this paper, the status of composting in these two states has been discussed. The help of case studies has been taken to elucidate the status and the sustainability of these plants. The learning from the matured system has also been utilized for a betterment of the naive one. The outcome of this paper will help the Urban Local Bodies in proper decision-making to manage OFMSW of India sustainably and conforming to the Swachh Bharat Mission.
KeywordsComposting OFMSW Case studies Swachh Bharat mission Sustainability
The author’s would like to acknowledge International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water (ISWMAW) for partially funding the project. Additionally, the help and cooperation from Centre for Quality Management Systems (CQMS) Jadavpur University, Kolkata; Consortium of Researchers for Environmental Protection, Sustainability and Climate Change (CREPSCC), SJCE College, Mysore are gratefully acknowledged.
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