Advertisement

Use of Co-compost from Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste in Urban Green Space Plantation of Khulna City: Prospects and Problems

  • T. K. RoyEmail author
  • M. M. Saroar
  • S. M. Haque
Conference paper

Abstract

Khulna is the third largest metropolitan city in Bangladesh having a population of 1.5 million in its 45.65 sq km area. A significant amount of co-compost from the estimated 42,600 m3 dried sludge and 67,925 tons of compost of organic solid waste can be produced per year in Khulna City. Khulna City Corporation (KCC) with a cost of Tk. 1.9 crore has established the largest Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP) in Asia on its 1.30 acre land, which has been in operation since 2017. Daily treatment capacity of this plant is 180 thousand litres. Green space of the city acts as a recreation and breathing place that promotes a healthy living environment, preserves ecological balance and improves physical and mental health. In Khulna City, urban green space in the form of parks, playgrounds, urban forestry, road and waterfront greens, nursery, institutional landscaping, etc. including urban agriculture comprise about 23% of the total area under different land use. Co-compost for its quality nutrient value can be potentially used for urban green space plantation. Lack of financial and technical capacity of sanitation service providing agencies; poor coordination among urban public and private organizations and lack of awareness of stakeholders on co-composting and green space issues are the problems that need to be addressed for the promotion of production and usage of co-compost in urban green space plantation.

Keywords

Co-compost Faecal sludge Organic waste Urban green space Plantation 

References

  1. 1.
    Enayetullah I (2015) Co-composting of municipal solid waste and Faecal sludge in Kustia Bangladesh. In: ISWA congress, 2015. Antwerp, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    KDA (Khulna Development Authority) (2014) Draft report on “preparation of detailed area development plan for Khulna Master Plan (2001) area project. KDA, Khulna, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roy TK (2012) Urban open space and green proposals of Khulna City master plan and their implementation. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference in environmental technology and construction engineering for sustainable development (ICETCESD-2012). SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roy TK (2013) Management of park solid wastes in Khulna City. In: Proceedings of the WasteSafe 2013 3rd international conference on solid waste management in developing countries, KUET. Khulna, Bangladesh. ISBN: 978-984-33-7045-7Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    SNV (2015) Design of Khulna fecal sludge treatment plant by Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand and Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET), BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roy TK, Rahman S, Dev PK (2013) Compost Fertilizer from municipal solid wastes and its application in urban agro-forestry nurseries: a case study on Khulna City. J Bangladesh Inst Plann BIP, Dhaka, Bangladesh 06:191–199Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khulna Development Authority Ordinance (1961) Available at http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/pdf_part.php?id=313. Accessed in July 2017
  8. 8.
    Khulna City Corporation Ordinance (1984) Available at http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/print_sections_all.php?id=678. Accessed in July 2017
  9. 9.
    WHO (2006) Guideline for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater: excreta and greywater use in agriculture. World Health Organization (WHO), WHO Press, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kome A (2011) Regional report Asia on landscape analysis and business model assessment in Fecal sludge management. SNVGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pierre J-BL, Flamand, Hidetoshi K, Xinbi Y, Satoru T (2013) A study on septage management efficiency in developing countries. In: The 11th IWA conference on small water & wastewater systems and sludge management. Harbin, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sandec (The Department of Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development) (2015) SFD promotion initiative, Nonthaburi. Thailand. Available at http://www.susana.org/_resources/documents/default/3-2394-7-1451392254.pdf. Accessed on Nov 2017
  13. 13.
    Shikun C, Lei Z, Mingyue Z, Xue1 B, Ziful L, Mang H (2017) Assessment of two fecal sludge treatment plants in urban areas: case study in Beijing. Int J Agric Biol Eng 10(03):237–245Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Consortium for DEWATS Dissemination Society (CDD) (2016) Pilot Faecal sludge treatment plant-Devanahalli. Available at http://www.cddindia.org/recentactivities-aug16.html. Accessed in 13 Sep 2017
  15. 15.
    Shivendra BT, Tejaswini M, Kamatagi P, Tejaswini PS (2016) Assessment of usage of treated Faecal sludge for agriculture. Int J Res Eng Technol 05(06):269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rahman MM, Ali M, Ashraf (2017) A proposed operational/business model for sustainable FSM services in urban areas of Bangladesh. Available at https://www.scribd.com/document/354848001/bangladesh-fsm-review-pdf, Accessed on 12 Sep 2017
  17. 17.
    Smith J (2017) Human waste reuse could benefit farmers and improve public health in South Asia. International Water Management Institute (IWMI). Available at https://wle.cgiar.org/content/human-waste-reuse-could-benefit-farmers-and-improve-public-health-south-asia. Explored in Nov 2017
  18. 18.
    Ahmed R (2017) Faecal sludge management in Kushtia municipality. Sub-regional workshop on urban water and sanitation in South and South-West Asia, Kathmandu, NepalGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rahman MM, Ali MA, Choudhury MR, Rahman MA, Redwan AM, Noor NF, Aminul IS (2016) Fecal sludge management (FSM) scenario in urban areas of Bangladesh. In: The 6th South Asian conference on sanitation (SACOSAN-VI). Dhaka, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Islam R, Stevens L, Saha UK (2015) Public private partnerships for sustainable sludge management services in Faridpur. Practical Action, Bangladesh, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ahsan T, Ahmed IU, Alamgir M, Hasan KHM (2014) Review of legal and other governing factors related to Faecal sludge management in Bangladesh. SNV, Khulna, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gunawan A, Schoebitz L, Strande L (2015) SFD promotion initiative, Khulna. Sandec (The Department of Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development), BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    WaterAid (2011) Landscape analysis and business model assessment in faecal Sludge management: extraction and transportation models in Bangladesh, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    SNV (2016) Co-composting of Faecal sludge and municipal organic waste for sustainable crop production in Southern BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    The Daily Purbanchal (2017) Available at http://purbanchal.com/2017/11/02/page-1-right-click-on-image-to-open-link-in-new-window-23/. Accessed on Nov 2017

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urban and Regional PlanningKhulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET)KhulnaBangladesh
  2. 2.Urban and Rural Planning Discipline, Khulna UniversityKhulnaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations