“Ecologic” Border and Deterritorialisation
The border represents the transitional zone of demarcation where places and nations begin and end. Prominence of the eternal truth coexists with the fuzziness of cultures and nature. Border studies have not taken into account the ecological content of the border that enables the fuzziness to give its content. This chapter attempts to reframe the idea of border by bringing in the ecological dimension and critiques both the Westphalian Border perspective and Empire Logic of Border. The border formation is a complex process that does not always involve sovereign. People themselves construct boundaries around them and within selves. In this connection, border is conceptualised as “ecologic” border (bhitamati in vernacular language) as a lived, rather than a constructed place dominated by power relations, that involves a complex interaction of social and environmental milieu of material and cultural life. Examining the lived experiences of the Munda tribe of Kalinganagar, the chapter further argues that border is not always a political artifice constructed to segregate, classify and control people, rather it is a social fact of life embedded within selves and collective memory of a community. The “memorate knowledge” – an assortment of social and symbolic goods – associated with the ecologic border embeds affective memories to place and the environment surrounding it. Increasing industrialisation after the initialisation of the process of globalisation has structurally ruptured the organic link of self with environment by displacing the community from its everyday borderlands. The tribes got deterritorialised from the embedded place, at times through voluntary movement and other times by forceful eviction, into a new “culturescape” where the erstwhile labouring population became part of the footloose labour and of the “lower class sector” of the new political economy evolving here.
KeywordsBorders Ecology State Boundaries Sovereignty
- Agnew, J. (1987). Place and politics: the geographical mediatioin of state and society. Boston: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
- Appadurai, A. (2003). Sovereignty without territoriality: Notes for a postnational geography. In S. M. Low & D. Lawrence-zuniga (Eds.), The anthropology of space and place: Locating culture (pp. 337–349). Malden/Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Bachelard, G. (1994). The poetics of space. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
- Barth, F. (2000). Boundaries and connections. In A. P. Cohen (Ed.), Signifying identities. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Basso, K. H. (Ed.). (1996). Wisdom sits in places: Landscape and language among the Western Apache. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
- Byrne, J. A., (2010). Biophilia, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229090791. Accessed on 13-5-2018, 4.30 p.m.
- Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: A short introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publications.Google Scholar
- Cronon, W. (2003). Changes in the land: Indians, colonists, and the ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
- Fall, J. J. (2011). Natural resources and transnational governance. In D. Wastl-Walter (Ed.), The Ashgate research companion to border studies (pp. 628–641). Farham/Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Ferreira, S. L. A. (2011). One decade of transfrontier conservation areas in southern Africa. In D. Wastl-Walter (Ed.), The Ashgate research companion to border studies (pp. 643–663). Farham and Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Gibson, J. J. (1986). The ecological approach to the visual perception. Madison: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Gottmann, J. (1973). The significance of territory. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.Google Scholar
- Gray, J. (2003). Open spaces and dwelling places: Being at home on hill farms in the Scottish borders. In S. M. Low & D. Lawrence-zuniga (Eds.), The anthropology of space and place: Locating culture (pp. 224–244). Malden/Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Heidegger, M. (1993). Building, dwelling, thinking. http://designtheory.fiu.edu/readings/heidegger_bdt.pdf.
- Ingold, T. (2000). The perception of the environment: Essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Jackson, J. B. (1987). The word itself. Discovering the Vernacular Landscape, 13 https://sfaiph304.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/jbjackson_vernacular.pdf. Accessed on 21.11.2017.
- Jones, R., & Johnson, K. (2014). Placing border in everyday life. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- McIntosh, A. (2010) Roots, belonging and place. www.christian-ecology.org.uk. Accessed on 7.3.2018.
- Newman, D. (2003a). Boundary. In J. A. K. Mitchell & G. Toal (Eds.), A companion to political geography. Hoboken: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
- Norberg-Schulz, C. (1971). Existence, space and architecture. New York/Washington, DC: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Perkins, C., Cooper, A., & Rumford, P. C. (2014). The vernacularization of borders. In R. Jones & C. Johnson (Eds.), Placing the border in everyday life (pp. 15–32). Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
- Relhp, E. (1976). Place and placelessness. London: Pion Publication.Google Scholar
- Ruby, T. (2006). Who am I and where do I belong? Sites of struggle in crafting and negotiating female Muslim identities in Canada. In W. Schissel (Ed.), Geographies of self, place and space: home/bodies. Canada: University of Calgary Press.Google Scholar
- Sack, R. D. (1986). Territoriality: Theory and history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Sahlins, P. (1989). Boundaries: The making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Sauer, C. J. (1960). On past and present American culture. In W. M. Denevan & K. Mathewson (Eds.), Carl Saurer on culture and landscape: Reading and commentaries, (2009) (pp. 390–391). Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press.Google Scholar
- Schofield, C. (2011). The delimitation of maritime boundaries: An incomplete mosaic. In D. Wastl-Walter (Ed.), The Ashgate research companion to border studies (pp. 665–681). Farham/Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Silko, L. M. (1986 Autumn). Landscape, history, and the Pueblo imagination. Antaeus, 57, 882–894.Google Scholar
- Sohn, C. (2015). On Borders’ multiplicity: A perspective from assemblage theory. Working paper, EUBORDERSCAPES, European Commission.Google Scholar
- Sun-young, R. (2003). Boundary and sense of place in traditional Korean dwelling. Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies, 3(2), 62–79.Google Scholar
- Tilley, C., & Cameron-Daum, K. (2017). The anthropology of landscape: Materiality, embodiment, contestation and emotion. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1mtz542.7
- Tuan, Y.-F. (1974). Space and place: Perspective on experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- van Houtum, H. (2011). The mask of the border. In D. Wastl-Walter (Ed.), The Ashgate research companion to border studies (pp. 49–61). Farham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Wilson, E. O. (1993). Biophilia and the conservation ethic. In S. R. Kellert & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis (pp. 31–41). Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Wilson, P. J. (1988). The domestication of human species. New Haven/London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Wylie, J. (2007). Landscape. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Zhurzhenko, T. (2011). Border and memory. In D. WAstl-Walter (Ed.), Companion to border studies (pp. 63–83). Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar