Enviroscaping: An Environment Friendly Landscaping

  • Malleshaiah Kumar SharathEmail author
  • K. V. Peter


The goal of developing ornamental landscapes that are safe, attractive, and functional for urban dwellers is pursued with great interest, and vast amounts of energy and material resources were used in this effort. However, direct and indirect energy consumption, the need for supplemental water, and the concerns about soil and ground water contamination raise serious questions regarding the long-term sustainability of urban landscapes. Sustainability in landscaping can be improved through a number of actions, such as planning and managing landscapes to function more like natural environments through cycling of resources and managing energy costs; integrating efforts to conserve water and energy, reduce green waste, improve soils, increase wildlife and reducing the demand for energy and material resources in other sectors of the urban environment through microclimate mitigation and habitat restoration. The objective of enviroscaping is to provide home gardeners and commercial landscapers with information that can help them to design and develop beautiful healthy, landscapes in an environmental friendly manner. The approach of enviroscaping is to manage landscapes as an interactive system by considering various components such as temperature, water/irrigation, fertilization, plants and trees, insect pest and pathogens control. Enviroscaping sets new dimension to landscape design and maintenance that can help us to conserve energy and water, recycle yard wastes on site and reduce inputs of fertilizers and pesticides into the environment.


Sustainability Landscape design Mitigation Recycling Green architecture 


  1. Akbari, H., Davis, S., Dorsano, S., & Huang, J (Eds.). (1992). Cooling our communities. A guidebook on tree planting and light-colored surfacing (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBL-31587). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  2. Banting, D., Doshi, H., & Li, J. et al. (2005). Report on the environmental benefits and costs of green roof technology for the city of Toronto. Ontario.
  3. Beaulieu, D. (2017a). How to select a mulch for your yard. In The Spruce. Accessed 19 May 2018
  4. Beaulieu, D. (2017b). Moss plants: Shade alternative to lawns. In The Spruce. Accessed 19 May 2018
  5. Beaulieu, D. (2017c). Xeriscaping plants: A drought-resistant approach. In The Spruce. Accessed 19 May 2018
  6. Beaulieu, D. (2018). Top tips for low-maintenance landscaping. In The Spruce. Accessed 19 May 2018
  7. Cacciatore, P., Hogan, J., Mattern, R., & Munoz, A. (2010). Development of a sustainable landscape architecture best practices manual. Degree of Bachelor of Science, Worcester Polytechnic Institute.Google Scholar
  8. Cameron, K. C., Madramootoo, C., Crolla, A., & Kinsley, C. (2003). Pollutant removal from municipal sewage lagoon effluents with a free-surface wetland. Water Research, 37, 2803–2812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cardoch, L., Day, J., Rybczyk, J., & Kemp, G. (2000). An economic analysis of using wetlands for treatment of shrimp processing wastewater-a case study in Dulac, LA. Ecological Economics, 33, 93–101. Scholar
  10. Chow, W., & Brazel, A. (2012). Assessing xeriscaping as a sustainable heat island mitigation approach for a desert city. Building and Environment, 47, 170–181. Scholar
  11. Eisenstein, W. (2001). Ecological design, urban places, and the culture of sustainability. In SPUR. Accessed 19 May 2018
  12. Friedman, A. (2012). Edible landscaping and xeriscaping. In Fundamentals of sustainable dwellings. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghermandi, A., Bixio, D., & Thoeye, C. (2007). The role of free water surface constructed wetlands as polishing step in municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse. Science of Total Environment, 380, 247–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghermandi, A., van den Bergh, J., & Brander, L. et al. (2008) The economic value of wetland conservation and creation: A meta-analysis. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:
  15. Iannotti, M. (2017). Xeriscape gardening – Planning for a water wise garden. In The Spruce. Accessed 19 May 2018
  16. Johnston, J., & Newton, J. (2004). Building green: A guide to using plants on roofs, walls and pavements. Published by Greater London Authority City Hall. ISBN 1 85261 637 7Google Scholar
  17. Köhler, M. (1989). Ökologische Untersuchungen an extensiven Dachbegrünungen. Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Ökologie (Essen 1988), 18, 249–255Google Scholar
  18. Kosareo, L., & Ries, R. (2007). Comparative environmental life cycle assessment of green roofs. Building and Environment, 42, 2606–2613. Scholar
  19. Landscape America. (2018). Site analysis for developing a landscape plan. In Accessed 19 May 2018
  20. Landscape Design Advisor. (2018). Natural outdoor living with xeriscape landscape design. In Landscape design advisor. Accessed 19 May 2018
  21. Manso, M., & Castro-Gomes, J. (2015). Green wall systems: A review of their characteristics. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41, 863–871. Scholar
  22. McPherson, E. G., & Simpson, J. R. (2001). Effects of California’s urban forests on energy use and potential savings from large-scale tree planting. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Center for Urban Forest Research, Davis CAGoogle Scholar
  23. PUB (Ed.). (2014). Public utilities board: ABC waters design guidelines (3rd ed.p. 112). Singapore: Public Utilities Board Scholar
  24. Rogers, J. (2013). Green, brown or grey: Green roofs as ‘sustainable’ infrastructure. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 173, 323–333. Scholar
  25. Rousseau, D. P. L., Lesage, E., Story, A., Vanrolleghem, P. A., & De Pauw, N. (2008). Constructed wetlands for water reclamation. Desalination, 218, 181–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shock, C. (2013). Drip irrigation: An introduction. Sustainable agriculture techniques (EM 8782). Oregon State University Extension Service. Accessed 19 May 2018.
  27. Vymazal, J. (2005). Horizontal sub-surface flow and hybrid constructed wetlands systems for wastewater treatment. Ecological Engineering, 25(1), 478–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Horticulture and Product Physiology GroupWageningen University and ResearchWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Kerala Agricultural UniversityThrissurIndia

Personalised recommendations