Advertisement

The Challenge of Teaching Creativity in School Music Education in Mainland China

  • Wai-Chung HoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Creativity in the Twenty First Century book series (CTFC)

Abstract

Creativity is completely embraced in every part of our culture. For Bourdieu (1993), a cultural product has “meaning and interest only for someone who possesses the cultural competence, that is, the code, into which it is encoded (p. 7). Csikszentmihalyi (1988) proposed a model of creativity and drew attention to the social context out of which creativity results from a complex interaction among a person, a field, and a culture in its innovation. Despite the consideration that creative individuals work in isolation, creativity results in large part from interaction and collaboration with other individuals. Creativity in human achievements has provided many contributions to human civilization. For example, ancient Greeks prided themselves on their creativity in the arts, literature, science and society. Other examples of creativity in human achievements include Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel ceiling, Tolstoy’s novel War and Peace, Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, van Gogh’s painting “The Starry Night,” Darwin’s work On the Origin of Species, and Einstein’s theory of relativity. These achievements are a general expression of humanity by particular people, and both heritage and creativity have laid the foundations for an innovative, vibrant and prosperous knowledge society.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to acknowledge the generous support of the Hong Kong Research Grants Council who funds this project (HKBU 12608618).

References

  1. Berthrong, J. H. (1998). Concerning creativity: A comparison of Chu Hsi, Whitehead, and Neville. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bourdieu, P. (1993). In R. Johnson (Ed.), Field of cultural production. New York. Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Chan, S. (1999). The Chinese learner—A question of style. Education + Training, 41(6), 294–304.Google Scholar
  4. Chang, D. W. W. (1992). Confucianism, democracy and socialism: The communist search for a new political topology with Chinese characteristics. Asian Thought and Society, XVII(52), 179–194.Google Scholar
  5. Chen, X. M. (2002). Acting the right part: Political theater and popular drama in contemporary China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  6. Chen, Y. T. (2014). From follower to creator: The school as a reform subject. In W. F. Pinar (Ed.), Curriculum studies in China: Intellectual histories, present circumstances (pp. 69–82). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. Chien, C., & Hui, A. N. N. (2010). Creativity in early childhood education: Teachers’ perceptions in three Chinese societies. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 5, 49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, R., & Gieve, S. N. (2006). On the discursive construction of ‘The Chinese learner’. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 19(1), 54–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988). Society, culture, and person: A system view of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of creativity: Contemporary psychological perspectives (pp. 325–339). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Dawson, R. (1981). Confucius. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Dello-lacovo, B. (2009). Curriculum reform and ‘quality education’ in China: An overview. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(3), 241–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeWoskin, K. J. (1982). A song for one or two: Music and the concept of art in early China. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Editorial Committee Board, Beijing Institute of Technology Press. (2004). Meiyu jiaoyu yu xuexiao jiaoyu (Aesthetic education and arts school education). Beijing: Beijing Institute of Technology Press.Google Scholar
  14. Elashmawi, F. (2001). Competing globally: Mastering multicultural management and negotiations. Woburn, MA: Butterfield-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  15. Falkenhausen, L. V. (1993). Suspended music: Chime-bells in the culture of Bronze age China. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fang, H., & Su, M. L. (2014). Shangdong sheng chengxiang yishu jiaoyu xianzhuang diaocha yu fazhan celue yanjiu (A survey on arts education and its development strategy in urban and rural areas of the Shandong Province). Shangdong Higher Education, 8, 62–71.Google Scholar
  17. Fung, A. (2008). Western style, Chinese pop: Jay Chou’s rap and hip-hop in China. Asian Music, 39(1), 69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gu, M. U. (2013). Cultural foundations of Chinese education. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guo, X. Z. (2002). The ideal Chinese political leader: A historical and cultural perspective. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.Google Scholar
  20. Hawkins, J. N., Zhou, N. Z., & Lee, J. (2001). China: Balancing the collective and the individual. In W. K. Cummings, M. T. Tatto, & J. Hawkins (Eds.), Values education for dynamic societies: Individual and collectivism (pp. 191–206). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  21. Ho, W. C. (2011). School music education and social change in Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.Google Scholar
  22. Ho, W. C. (2017). China: Socio-political perspective on the introduction and development of school music. In G. Cox & R. Stevens (Eds.), The origins and foundations of music education: International perspectives. London and New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  23. Ho, W. C., & Law, W. W. (2015). The promotion of multiple citizenships in China’s music education. In C. Benedict, P. Schmidt, G. Spruce, & P. Woodford (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of social justice and music education (pp. 91–106). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Hofstede, G., & Bond, M. H. (1988). The Confucius connection: From cultural toots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics, 16, 4–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hunan Literature and Art Publishing House. (2012). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 7) (Vol. 1). Hunan: Author.Google Scholar
  27. Jiangsu Juvenile and Children’s Publishing House. (2012). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 9) (Vol. 2). Jiangsu: Author.Google Scholar
  28. Jiangsu Juvenile and Children’s Publishing House. (2013). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 8) (Vol. 1). Nanking: Author.Google Scholar
  29. Jin, J. (2011). Chinese music. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Johnson, H. A., & Weiss, J. W. (2008). A stage model of education and innovation type in China: The paradox of the dragon. Journal of Technology Management in China, 3(1), 66–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jones, A. F. (2001). Yellow music: Media culture and colonial modernity in the Chinese jazz age. London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kirkpatrick, R., & Zang, Y. B. (2011). The negative influences of exam-oriented education on Chinese high school students: Backwash from classroom to child. Language Testing in Asia, 1(3), 36–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Law, W. W., & Ho, W. C. (2009). A review of values education in China’s school music education: From nationalism to globalisation. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(4), 501–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Law, W. W., & Ho, W. C. (2011). Music education in China: In search for social harmony and Chinese nationalism. British Journal of Music Education, 28(3), 371–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Law, W. W., & Ho, W. C. (2015). Popular music and school music education: Chinese students’ preferences and dilemmas in Shanghai. China. International Journal of Music Education, 33(3), 304–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Legge, J. (1971). Confucius: Confucius analects, the great learning and the doctrine of the mean. New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  37. Li, Z. C., & Johnson, A. (2015). Promoting creativity in Chinese classrooms: An examination based on educational policies. In R. Wegerif, L. Li, & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of research on teaching thinking (pp. 168–180). New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Lin, W. H. (2013). Jay Chou’s music and the shaping of popular culture in China. In L. Fitzsimmons & J. A. Lent (Eds.), The Palgrave Macmillan popular culture in Asia: Memory, city, celebrity (pp. 260–271). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. Lin, K. W., & Huang, K. P. (2014). Moral judgment and ethical leadership in Chinese management: The role of Confucianism and collectivism. Quality and Quantity, 48(1), 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marquardt, M., Berger, N., & Loan, P. (2004). HRD in the age of globalization: A practical guide to workplace learning in the third millennium. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  41. Ministry of Education, the People’s Republic of China. (2001). Yinyue kecheung biaozhun: shiyan gao (Standard of music curriculum: Experimental version). Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Ministry of Education, the People’s Republic of China. (2012). Yiwu jiaoyu yinyue kecheng biaozhun [Curriculum standards for primary education and junior secondary education: Music]. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Niu, W. H., & Kaufman, J. C. (2013). Creativity of Chinese and American cultures: A synthetic analysis. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 47(1), 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Niu, W. H., & Sternberg, R. J. (2003). Societal and school influence on students’ creativity: The case of China. Psychology in the Schools, 40, 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Niu, W. H., & Sternberg, R. J. (2006). The philosophical roots of western and eastern conceptions of creativity. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 26(1–2), 18–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pang, N. S. K. (2011). Educational governance and management in sinic societies. In Y. Zhao (Ed.), Handbook of Asian education: A cultural perspective (pp. 7–28). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. People’s Daily News. (2008, August 15). Four great inventions at Olympic opening warmly-welcomed. Retrieved August 5, 2015, from: http://en.people.cn/90001/90776/6476950.html.
  48. Pang, W. G., & Plucker, J. A. (2012). Recent transformations in China’s economic, social, and education policies for promoting innovation and creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 46(4), 247–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. People’s Daily News. (2010, August 4). Chinese students lack imagination, creativity. Retrieved August 12, 2015, from: http://en.people.cn/90001/90776/90882/7093100.html.
  50. People’s Education Publishing House. (2013a). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 8) (Vol. 1). Hunan: Author.Google Scholar
  51. People’s Music Publishing House. (2013b). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 1) (Vol. 1). Beijing: Author.Google Scholar
  52. People’s Music Publishing House. (2014a). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 7) (Vol. 1). Beijing: Author.Google Scholar
  53. People’s Music Publishing House. (2014b). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 8) (Vol. 1). Beijing: Author.Google Scholar
  54. People’s Music Publishing House. (2014c). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 8) (Vol. 2). Beijing: Author.Google Scholar
  55. People’s Music Publishing House. (2014d). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 9) (Vol. 1). Beijing: Author.Google Scholar
  56. People’s Education Publishing House. (2014e). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 9) (Vol. 2). Beijing: Author.Google Scholar
  57. People’s Education Publishing House. (2015). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 6) (Vol. 1). Beijing: Author.Google Scholar
  58. Preus, B. (2007) Educational trends in China and the United States: Proverbial pendulum or potential for balance? Phi Delta Kappan, 115–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Qing, J. (2013). A Confucian constitutional order: How China’s ancient past can shape its political future (translated by E. Ryden, D. A. Bell, & R. P. Fan). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Roberts, D. (2014, October 16). Echoing Mao, China’s Xi says art must serve the people and the socialist cause. Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 September, 2015, from: http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2014-10-16/chinas-xi-to-artists-follow-the-party-line.
  61. Rudowicz, E. (2004). Creativity among Chinese people: Beyond Western perspective.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rudowicz, E., & Yue, X. D. (2000). Concepts of creativity: Similarity and differences among mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwanese Chinese. Journal of Creative Behavior, 34, 175–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shanghai Education Publishing House. (2010). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 7, vol. 1). Shanghai: Author.Google Scholar
  64. Shanghai Education Publishing House. (2014). Changyou (Singing) (Grade 2, 2nd term). Shanghai: Author.Google Scholar
  65. Shanghai Education Publishing House. (2015). Music (Yinyue) (Grade 4, 1st term). Shanghai: Author.Google Scholar
  66. Shanghai Juvenile and Children’s Publishing House. (2013). Yinyue (Music) (Grade 6, 1st term). Shanghai: Author.Google Scholar
  67. Staats, L. K. (2011). The cultivation of creativity in the Chinese culture—Past, present, and future. Journal of Strategic Leadership, 3(1), 45–53.Google Scholar
  68. Su, Z. X. (1995). A critical evaluation of John Dewey’s influence on Chinese education. American Journal of Education, 103(3), 302–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tan, C. H. (1990). Management concepts and Chinese culture. In J. Child & M. Lockett (Eds.), Reform policy and the Chinese enterprise (Vol. 1 part A of Advances in Chinese industrial studies) (pp. 277–287). Greenwich, Connecticut and London: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  70. Tan, S. H. (2004). China’s pragmatist experiment in democracy: Hu Shih’s pragmatism and Dewey’s influence in China. Metaphilosophy, 35(1–2), 44–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Teng, S. Y. (2004). Lun shengtai shi yishu jiaoyu (Examination on the ecological perspective of arts education). Science and Technology Information, 32(3), 5–16.Google Scholar
  72. Thiruchelvam, S. (2014, November 24). The future of Chinese arts and creative industries. Forbes. Retrieved August 1, 2015, from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/sthiruchelvam/2014/11/24/the-future-of-chinese-arts-and-creative-industries/.
  73. Vong, K. (2008). Developing creativity and promoting social harmony: The relationship between government, school and parents’ perceptions of children’s creativity in Macao-SAR in China. Early Years, 28(2), 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wang, J. C. S. (2007). John Dewey in China: To teach and to learn. Albany: University of New York.Google Scholar
  75. Wang, M. (2010). Professional autonomy of music teachers in China. Unpublished PhD thesis. Hong Kong: Faculty of Education, the University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  76. Wang, X. P. (2015). Zhongxiao xue: ying zhongshi shenmei xing yu shijian xing de ronghe (Primary and secondary education: Should the importance of the integration of aesthetic character and the practice be valued). Educational Research, 424, 133–140.Google Scholar
  77. Weiner, R. P. (2000). Creativity and beyond: Cultures, values, and change. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  78. Wong, I. K. F. (1984). Geming gequ: Songs for the education of the masses. In B. S. Dougall (Ed.), Popular Chinese literature and performing arts in the People’s Republic of China (1949–1979) (pp. 112–143). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  79. Wu, J. J. (2004). Recognizing and nurturing creativity in Chinese Students. In S. Lau, A. Hui, & G. Ng (Eds.), Creativity: When east meets west (pp. 169–200). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Pte. Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yao, S. Y. (1989). On the construction and development of China schools’ musical education. People Music (Renmin Yinyue), 10, 24–27.Google Scholar
  81. Yue, X. D. (2001). Understanding creativity and creative people in Chinese society: A comparative study among university students in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei. Asia Pyshcologica Sinica, 33, 148–154.Google Scholar
  82. Zhang, L. Z. (2000). Cai Yuanpei (1868–1940). Prospects: The quarterly review of comparative education. (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), XXIII (1/2), 147–157.Google Scholar
  83. Zhang, H. J. (2013). John Dewey, Liang Shuming, and China’s education reform. Maryland: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  84. Zhang, X. M., & Xu, C. F. (2007). The late Qing dynasty diplomatic transformation: Analysis from an ideational perspective. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 1, 405–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zhao, X. Y. (2014). The western influences on early twentieth century Chinese school songs. International Journal of Music and Performing Arts, 2(2), 1–10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hong Kong Baptist UniversityHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations