Advertisement

Shrinking Cities in China: The Overall Profile and Paradox in Planning

  • Ying Long
  • Shuqi GaoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)

Abstract

Manifested by population loss, shrinking cities are currently under heated discussion in the developed countries. The emerging shrinking cities in developing world, however, have not attracted enough attention. This paper focuses on the shrinking cities in China, where has been witnessed fast economic growth, rapid urban expansion, and massive urbanization in the last decades. By collecting and analyzing township-level demographic data of the Census in 2000 and 2010, we identified 180 shrinking cities. We then classified them into two sets of categories based on their causalities and spatial patterns of depopulation, respectively. Despite their great quantity, shrinking cities are largely disregarded by China’s planners and local authorities during the plan-making process. We conceptualized the causalities of the disregard into the systematic paradox and technological paradox, both of which are the effects of a combination of China’s specific planning system, land marketization, cadre promotion system, and the national urbanization policy. We then further conceptualize the overwhelming growth-oriented paradigm into a vicious cycle that continuously exacerbates oversupply of the built environment in shrinking cities. This paper ends with a discussion of appealing for more attention on shrinking cities in China and a paradigm shift from the growth-oriented planning, as well as the future research agenda for shrinking cities’ research in China.

Keywords

Shrinking cities Depopulation Chinese cities Growth-oriented paradigm 

References

  1. Bernt M (2009) Partnerships for demolition: the governance of urban renewal in East Germany’s shrinking cities. Int J Urban Reg Res 33(3):754–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernt M (2016) The limits of shrinkage: conceptual pitfalls and alternatives in the discussion of urban population loss. Int J Urban Reg Res 40(2):441–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bluestone B, Harrison B (1982) The deindustrialization of America. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Bontje M (2005) Facing the challenge of shrinking cities in East Germany: the case of Leipzig. GeoJournal 61(1):13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chan KW, Zhang L (1999) The hukou system and rural-urban migration in China: processes and changes. China Quarter 160:818–855Google Scholar
  6. Chan KW (2007) Misconceptions and complexities in the study of China’s cities: definitions, statistics, and implications. Eurasian Geogr Econ 48(4):383–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ding C (2003) Land policy reform in China: assessment and prospects. Land Use Policy 20(2):109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Harvey D (1978) The urban process under capitalism: a framework for analysis. Int J Urban Reg Res 2:101–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. He SY, Lee J, Zhou T, Wu D (2017) Shrinking cities and resource-based economy: the economic restructuring in China’s mining cities. Cities 60:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hollander JB, Pallagst K, Schwarz T, Popper FJ (2009) Planning shrinking cities. Prog Plann 72(4):223–232Google Scholar
  11. Hollander JB (2011) Sunburnt cities: the great recession, depopulation and urban planning in the American sunbelt. RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  12. Holzer M, Zhang M (2004) China’s fiscal reform: The issue of extra budgeting. J Public Budget Account Financial Manag 16(1):19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jin X, Long Y, Sun W, Lu Y, Yang X, Tang J (2017) Evaluating cities’ vitality and identifying ghost cities in China with emerging geographical data. Cities 63:98–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li H, Zhou LA (2005) Political turnover and economic performance: the incentive role of personnel control in China. J Public Econom 89(9):1743–1762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lichtenberg E, Ding C (2009) Local officials as land developers: Urban spatial expansion in China. J Urban Econom 66(1):57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lin GC, Yi F (2011) Urbanization of capital or capitalization on urban land? Land development and local public finance in urbanizing China. Urban Geograp 32(1):50–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Logan JR, Molotch H (1987) Urban fortunes: the political economy of place. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  18. Long Y, Wu K (2016) Shrinking cities in a rapidly urbanizing China. Environ Plann A 48(2):220–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mallach A (2011) Comment on Hollander’s “The bounds of smart decline: a foundational theory for planning shrinking cities”. Housing Policy Debate 21(3):369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mao Q, Long Y, Wu K (2016) Spatio-temporal changes of population density and urbanization pattern in China (2000–2010). China City Plann Rev 25(4):8–14Google Scholar
  21. National People’s Congress (2004) Land Administration Law of the People’s Republic of China. http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/Law/2007–12/12/content_1383939.htm. Last accessed June 7, 2017
  22. NBS (2000) The population census data for townships, towns and sub-districts of 2000. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/renkoupucha/2000jiedao/jiedao.htm (in Chinese, last visited, February 7, 2017)
  23. Pallagst K (2010) Viewpoint: the planning research agenda: shrinking cities–a challenge for planning cultures. Town Plann Rev 81(5):i–viCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Population Census Office under the State Council & Department of Population and Employment Statistics under the National Bureau of Statistics (2012) Tabulation on the 2010 Population Census of the People’s Republic of China by Township. China Statistics Press, Beijing, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Rhodes J, Russo J (2013) Shrinking ‘Smart’?: Urban redevelopment and shrinkage in youngstown. Ohio Urban Geogr 34(3):305–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rybczynski W, Linneman P (1999) How to save our shrinking cities. Public Interest 135:30–44Google Scholar
  27. Rydin Y (2013) The future of planning: beyond growth dependence. Policy Press, Bristol, UKGoogle Scholar
  28. Schetke S, Haase D (2008) Multi-criteria assessment of socio-environmental aspects in shrinking cities. Experiences from Eastern Germany. Environ Impact Assess Rev 28(7):483–503Google Scholar
  29. Schilling J, Logan J (2008) Greening the rust belt: a green infrastructure model for right sizing America’s shrinking cities. J Am Plann Assoc 74(4):451–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Turok I, Mykhnenko V (2007) The trajectories of European cities, 1960–2005. Cities 24(3):165–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. UN DESA (2014) World urbanization prospects: the 2014 revision. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, New York. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/publications/files/wup2014-highlights.Pdf (last visited, February 7, 2017)
  32. UN DESA (2015) World population prospects: the 2015 revision. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, New York. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/publications/files/key_findings_wpp_2015.pdf (last visited, February 7, 2017)
  33. UN-HABITAT (2008) State of the world’s cities 2008–2009: Harmonious Cities. UN-HabitatGoogle Scholar
  34. Wiechmann T (2007) Between spectacular projects and pragmatic deconstruction. The future of shrinking cities: Problems, patterns, & strategies of urban transformation in a global context. In: Conference on the Future of Shrinking Cities. Berkeley, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  35. Wiechmann T, Pallagst KM (2012) Urban shrinkage in Germany and the USA: a comparison of transformation patterns and local strategies. Int J Urban Reg Res 36(2):261–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. World Bank (2002) China: national development and sub-national finance: a review of provincial expenditures vol 3. World Bank, Washington DC, pp 106–107Google Scholar
  37. Wu C, Zhang X, Cui G, Cui S (2014) Shrinkage and expansion in peri-urban China. In: Pallagst K, Wiechmann, Martinez-Fernandez C Shrinking Cities: International Perspectives and Policy Implications. New York, NY: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu F (2001) China’s recent urban development in the process of land and housing marketisation and economic globalisation. Habitat Int 25(3):273–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wu F (2015) Planning for growth: Urban and regional planning in China. Routledge, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wu C, Zhang X, Cui G, Cui S (2014b) Shrinkage and Expansion in Peri-Urban China. In: Pallagst K, Wiechmann T, Martinez-Fernandez C (eds) Shrinking Cities: international perspectives and policy implications. Routledge, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang T (2002) Challenges facing Chinese planners in transitional China. J Plann Educat Res 22(1):64–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhao P (2011) Managing urban growth in a transforming China: evidence from Beijing. Land Use Policy 28(1):96–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Architecture and Hang Lung Center for Real EstateTsinghua UniversityHaidian District, BeijingChina
  2. 2.School of ArchitectureSoutheast UniversityXuanwu District, NanjingChina

Personalised recommendations