Synthesis of Hydrophobic Ceramic Ultrafiltration Membrane and Performance Evaluation for Removal of Ciprofloxacin in Water
The pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) have recently been recognized as emerging pollutants in sewage water, industrial wastewater and even in groundwater. Remediation of such recalcitrant contaminants is essential since most of these components have adverse impact on the aquatic life, as well as, on human leading to endocrine disruption. The existing processes are often found as inadequate for the elimination of such contaminants which leads to contamination of surface water due to the discharge of such emerging contaminants from industrial and domestic effluents. In the present study, the efficiency of indigenously developed ceramic membranes with controlled pore size and surface property were investigated for PPCP removal. Ceramic ultrafiltration membrane was prepared on clay–alumina-based support tube using bentonite clay as coating layer. Hydrophobic surface modification was done on the ultrafiltration layer by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Ciprofloxacin (fluoroquinolone antibiotics) has been selected as a model component and its removal efficiency was studied from synthetic water using the developed membrane-based process. Effect of initial concentration of ciprofloxacin (0.1–1 mg/L) on rejection efficiency and permeate flux were studied with different operating pressure. Effect of time on the rejection efficiency and permeate flux were also observed for an initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L of ciprofloxacin. The prepared hydrophobic membrane showed encouraging results. Maximum rejection of ciprofloxacin was obtained to be >99% for an initial concentration of 1 mg/L at transmembrane pressure of 4.5 kg/cm2.
KeywordsPharmaceutical and personal care products Ciprofloxacin Ceramic membrane Bentonite coating layer Hydrophobic surface modification
The financial support from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India vide Grant No. DST/TM/WTI/2K15/105(G) dated 15 June 2016 is gratefully acknowledged. The authors acknowledge the Director, CSIR-CGCRI for granting permission in carrying out the study. Centre for Research in Nanoscience & Nanotechnology (CRNN), University of Calcutta is acknowledged for their support in providing facility for FESEM characterisation of the samples.
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